Case Study: Providing food and shelter for invertebrates in Autumn

Author: Catherine Jones, Buglife

As the days continue to shorten, temperatures drop and the morning frosts start to appear, the value of autumnal vegetation for wildlife should not be underestimated.

In addition to creating the striking frost-bitten scenery in autumn and winter, allowing tussocky grass and wildflower seed heads to remain uncut through winter, in field margins, along tracks and roadside verges, and in gardens, will provide food and shelter for invertebrates and other wildlife.

© Gethin Davies

The remaining seed heads of the summer flushes of wildflowers such as willow herbs, thistles and even dandelions supply food for goldfinches, linnets and other seed eating birds and shelter for invertebrates. Ladybirds and earwigs may shelter in large wildflowers seed heads.

© Guy Sharrock

© Jodie Randall

Tall tussocky grass provides shelter for many overwintering invertebrates, and spiders construct their webs between long fronds that collect water droplets in the early morning mists. Grass tussocks may also hide ‘runs’ where mice and voles move from place to place protected by the dense vegetation above. Carder bee queens, emerging from hibernation, will search for nesting sites at the base of grass tussocks in spring.

Autumn is a great time to cut areas of long grass, including wildflowers meadows, and to remove the cuttings to help wildflowers to thrive the following year which in turn produce nectar and pollen to feed our valuable pollinators. But leaving leaving some patches of long tussocky grass and tall wildflower seed heads back then has now provided food and shelter in hardest months and nesting opportunities next spring.

© Gethin Davies

Additional information on managing farmland for pollinators is available from:

https://www.buglife.org.uk/resources/farming-hub/helping-pollinators-at-farm-scale/

https://www.buglife.org.uk/resources/farming-hub/helping-pollinators-at-a-field-scale/

Case Study: Managing Farmland for Grey Long-eared Bats

Author: Craig Dunton, Grey long-eared bat Project Officer, Bat Conservation Trust

Species: Grey Long-eared bat:

© Craig Dunton/www.bats.org.uk

 

Why is farmland important for this species?

With as few as 1000 individuals In the UK, the grey long-eared bat is one of our rarest mammals. Their distribution is restricted to the southern coast (Devon, Dorset, Somerset, Hampshire, Isle of Wight and Sussex) and there are only 9 known maternity colonies; meaning that this species is on the brink of extinction in this country. Currently, work is being carried out to conserve this species as part of 'Back from the Brink' – a Heritage Lottery funded conservation project aiming to save 20 species from extinction. https://naturebftb.co.uk/

Farmland is vitally important to all bat species. 70% of land in the UK is used for agriculture, so for very mobile species that utilise the whole landscape, farming practices can have significant impacts on bat populations. Some bat species are more resilient than others, but for those that have very low populations, are particularly sensitive to light and disturbance, and have very specific habitat requirements, there are significant threats to their survival.

Like all bats, the grey long-eared bat needs some key elements throughout its range in order to survive and thrive.

Grey long-eared bat (Plecotus austriacus) in flight. © Dale Sutton/www.bats.org.uk

Roosts: Bats utilise a wide variety of structures to roost in, as their requirements change throughout the year. Roosts are needed for different activities – hibernation roosts, maternity roosts, night feeding roosts (for some bats) – these are all needed at different times of the year, and different bat species choose different structures for different activities.

Many bats hibernate underground, using caves, mines, cellars and tunnels that have a cool and constant temperature that bats need to hibernate. Many farms have these types of features, so it is important to be aware of their importance for bats. Some bats roost in a variety of different tree features; cracks, splits, woodpecker holes, loose bark – so it is important to retain trees that have ‘interesting’ features.

Grey long-eared bats are mostly associated with man-made roosts – usually the roof spaces of large, traditional, stone buildings with slate roofs. There are some records of them using caves and rock crevices, but no records of them using bat boxes in England.

Many buildings on farms can provide important roosts for grey long-eared bats, particularly large stone buildings with slate roofs and large, open roof voids. These can provide vital maternity roosts, temporary day and night roosts and opportunities for hibernation. As all bat species are protected, if you are planning to carry out any work that might impact bats or their roosts, the National Bat Helpline will point you in the right direction, please email enquiries@bats.org.uk

Foraging sites: As with roosts, different species of bats have different types of habitats that they favour for foraging. All UK bat species are insectivores, and depending on their size, flight habits and other physical adaptations, different species need different insect prey and therefore different habitats for foraging in. Greater horseshoe bats are large bats and so favour large prey, particularly around the maternity period. Cockchafers and dung beetles are their food of choice. Daubenton’s bats are often seen foraging over water, trawling insects from the surface of the water with their specially adapted, large hairy feet.

© Craig Dunton/www.bats.org.uk

Grey long-eared bats have a close association with unimproved lowland grassland and riparian (wet) habitats such as meadows and marshes.

Managing permanent pasture more extensively with very low or no inputs will benefit grey long-eared bat populations, offering more opportunities for invertebrates including the moths and craneflies that grey long-eared bats favour. Managing land to maintain or increase species diversity (more flowering plants) as well as structural diversity (a range in sward height), will give insects food and shelter resources. If possible, consider transitioning land back to hay meadow management as opposed to silage production, as this allows insects and plants to complete life cycles and thrive.

In terms of cultivated land, increase pollen and nectar plots and wildflower margins, and manage by cutting or grazing to maintain plant diversity. These areas alongside trees and tall hedgerows have proven benefits for some bat species. Minimise pesticide use and consider crops that contain lots of flowering plants such as herbal leys.  Within arable land, conservation headlands or low input cereals can be beneficial if management results in increased invertebrate numbers. These are all ways of increasing foraging opportunities on less productive areas of land for grey long-eared (and other) bats.

Farming organically has many advantages, including huge benefits to biodiversity, natural resource protection and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Following organic principles should be considered if aiming to encourage bats and other biodiversity.

Connectivity: For so much of our wildlife, good habitat connectivity is critically important. Linear features in the landscape such as hedgerows, watercourses and ditches, enable different species to flow freely through the landscape, enabling opportunities for feeding, interacting and breeding. For bats, good connectivity is vital, as many bats use linear features to navigate through the landscape, using their echolocation to move from roosting sites to foraging sites. When these features are well managed, they can also provide foraging opportunities as well as providing obvious features to allow free movement. Extensive hedgerow management (2-3 year cutting cycle) allows hedgerow plants to flower and fruit, providing vital resources for insects. Buffer strips along streams and rivers not only provides increased opportunities for foraging, but can also protect watercourses from nutrient and pesticide run off, protecting aquatic flora and fauna.

For more information on land management for grey long-eared bats contact Craig Dunton (Grey long-eared bat project officer) on cdunton@bats.org.uk

 

 

 

Case Study: Adding Value to Chalk Grasslands: Creating Chalk Banks to benefit butterflies and other insects.

Author: Lynne Roberts . Farm: The RSPB’s Manor Farm, Newton Tony, Wiltshire

Aims and setting:

Manor Farm is a 296 ha working farm strategically placed between two of the largest tracts of semi-natural chalk grassland in the British Isles – Salisbury Plain and Porton Down. The RSPB purchased Manor farm in 2006 and have been reverting former arable land back to species-rich chalk grassland to create a landscape-scale stepping stone between these two areas.

Whilst this reversion has been very successful in establishing flower-rich grassland, even after several years the ex-arable fields still have unsuitable soil conditions for the plant species typical of very thin, nutrient-poor chalky soils. The fields are also rather flat as a result of historical cultivation, lacking the humps and hollows of natural grassland which help to create a variety of microclimates for a wider range of plants and insects.

For these reasons, in 2013 it was decided to create two large mostly south-facing banks to support viable populations of species characteristic of thin, chalky soils. Butterfly banks and scrapes can provide ideal conditions for butterflies, with sheltered sunny spots and bare ground for basking, alongside a mosaic of nectar-rich flowers for foraging adults and specific foodplants for growing caterpillars.

Funding for the creation of the banks was provided by the SITA Trust (now SUEZ) “Conservation of the small blue butterfly at RSPB Winterbourne Downs” project, and the Biffa Award “Saving a special place for Wiltshire’s endangered butterflies” project. Appropriate permissions for the work were also obtained.

Construction:

The site for the butterfly banks was flat terrain with a 20cm layer of flinty loam over chalk. Two large banks measuring 150m x 12m and 180m x 12m were constructed in two different fields. The loam topsoil was bulldozed into an S-shaped mound, oriented so that most of its length faced south. The mound was then covered with the chalk from the beneath the soil, leaving a wide 'scrape' area of bare chalk alongside.

The S-shape ensures that there are sides facing all possible directions, creating a variation in topography and diverse range of micro-climates. The idea is that this helps to increase the resilience of both plants and insects to the more extreme conditions predicted as a result of climate change. In the mornings, butterflies, bees and other warmth-loving insects can warm up on the east-facing side of the banks, which catches the early morning sun. During the main part of the day, they can use the warm, sunny, south-facing side. If it gets too hot on the south side, the insects can retreat to the north-facing side. As expected, during the middle part of the hottest July day on record in England in 2015, all the bee activity was on the banks’ north-facing slopes.

Construction begins

The first bank was initially seeded with a generic chalk grassland and wildflower mix as well as kidney vetch and horseshoe vetch, which are vital food plants for small blue, chalkhill blue and Adonis blue butterflies. On the second bank, only the kidney vetch and horseshoe vetch were introduced. The banks could have been left to regenerate naturally, but the butterfly foodplants were not growing in the vicinity and therefore seeding with specific species was preferred to ensure that the right plants established.

Development over time and ongoing management

The vetches were the first plants to establish and were flowering in the first summer after autumn sowing. Over the following two years other species, such as small scabious, ribwort plantain, harebell and quaking grass appeared, the coverage developing into a patchwork of abundant flowering species interspersed with bare areas - the ideal structure for butterfly habitat.

Vetches establish quickly on the bare chalk

The vegetation on the banks has become denser over time but has required little ongoing management as the tough conditions prevent many unwanted species from colonising. Sheep are our management tools, grazing from August onwards, when most flowering is over. This helps us to keep on top of any scrub encroachment and keeps the sward open, with some disturbance of the ground surface to create germination opportunities. Cattle would probably cause damage to the banks, so are avoided.

Where necessary, brush cutting is carried out in the summer and the arisings removed and taken to other areas of the farm which are species-poor and could benefit from wildflower sowing.

Brush cutting the coarser vegetation

Achievements:

Colonisation of the banks by breeding small blue butterflies was impressively quick - within the first three years, as the kidney vetch established readily. The abundance of suitable foodplants is particularly important for sustaining viable populations of butterflies, so the fact that small blues were seen on the banks in August, probably a second brood from eggs laid in June, was a good indication that suitable habitat for breeding had been achieved.

Small blue on its larval foodplant, kidney vetch

Other chalk grassland butterflies have also been recorded on the banks in the last few years: common blue, brown argus, marbled white, dark green fritillary and, excitingly, the marsh fritillary, a species in severe decline which has been attracted to Manor Farm by the abundance of scabious plants in the grassland. Good numbers of these species are now being seen on the farm as they are moving in from the neighbouring strongholds on Salisbury Plain and Porton Down. We have yet to record chalkhill blue, but the Adonis blue was a new record in 2018, so hopefully it will just be a matter of time before the chalkhills arrive.

The diversity of flora species continues to develop, with some of the less common chalk specialists such as devil’s-bit scabious, starting to appear on the banks.

In addition, we have shown that the fields containing the banks can still be used as grazing land, albeit in a carefully managed way.

Our experience and lessons learned:

Five years on we found that some plants had been harder to establish on the banks than others. The pioneer species kidney vetch and horseshoe vetch, two of our key butterfly food plants, established readily from seed and plug plants were not required. However, we didn’t have the same success with common rock rose, the food plant of the brown argus and cistus forester moth. This was easier to establish from plugs, although the sown seed may germinate eventually when conditions are favourable and the seed coat has weathered a little. Plugs are more expensive, so a pragmatic approach may be to try sowing seed first and then supplementing with a few plugs after a couple of years if the seed has not germinated. Germination rates of common rock rose can be improved by scratching the seed surface (scarifying) prior to sowing.

Where we sowed the generic mix, some of the taller plants have become dominant, greater knapweed particularly, shading out some of the foodplants, such as horseshoe vetch. We have therefore had to manage some of the less desirable species in order to help the key plants thrive.  This was not such issue on the second bank, where we had just sown the foodplants, with just the odd thistle to deal with.

We suspect that by creating the base of the banks from the flinty loam topsoil, the longer rooted chalk grassland species may be accessing nutrients from this base and gaining an advantage. Ideally, the bank would be created from pure chalk and the removed soil utilised elsewhere. A chalk-only bank would create the harsher alkaline conditions which favour the more extreme chalk specialists, including the kidney vetch and horseshoe vetch, and would slow the rate of encroachment by scrub species.

Although our butterfly banks are very large it is important to note that banks of any size can make a big difference to the survival of butterfly populations - even just moving soil around to create variation in the topography of reverted arable fields or pasture can help. Butterflies exist in small populations which are linked to create larger ‘metapopulations’, so even quite small areas of suitable habitat could provide a vital link in the chain.

All photos supplied by Patrick Cashman.   
For more information, contact: patrick.cashman@rspb.org.uk

Further examples of butterfly banks

Organisations such as Butterfly Conservation and Buglife have been constructing butterfly banks on several sites, both rural and urban, as a way of creating breeding habitat suitable for a number of different butterfly species. For further information see the following links:

https://butterfly-conservation.org/our-work/reports-and-factsheets/habitat-creation

https://farmwildlife.info/2017/12/15/bare-ground-butterflies-moths/

Case Study: British dung beetles – here to help

Author: Ceri Watkins, Co-Founder of Dung beetle UK Mapping Project

Species: Dung beetles

Why is farmland important for these species?

There are approximately 60 species of dung beetle in the UK. They are not the ‘ball rollers’ seen in warmer countries and on TV, instead they live inside the dung pile (dwellers) or in the soil beneath it (tunnellers). Livestock grazing provides much of the dung required for the survival of these beetles, although other animals such deer and badgers also contribute. Some species are rather specialised and require exacting conditions. For example, Volinus sticticus prefers horse or sheep dung in the shade and Onthophagus joannae is a sun loving beetle that favours sheep dung on light soils. Others are less fussy and have few specific requirements.

It is possible to find dung beetles at work all year round. Several species are winter active, although the vast majority are found in the spring, summer and autumn. Given the right conditions, dung beetles can decimate a pile of horse poo or a cow pat in just a couple of days.

Volinus sticticus (c) Katherine Child  

Onthophagus joannae (c) Katherine Child

How do dung beetles benefit farms?

Dung beetles provide a wide range of ecosystem services that help to maintain healthy pastures and soils. These include the most obvious, the consumption of dung thereby removing it from the fields thus reducing pasture fouling, but also some that you may not have considered. As the beetles tunnel down through the soil, burying the dung for breeding purposes, essential nutrients are recycled within the soil profile. This improves grass growth and provides a direct benefit to grazing animals. The larger species such as the Minotaur beetle (Typhaeus typhoeus) can tunnel a metre or more, this action breaks up the ground and improves drainage, especially useful on clay soils.

In addition, dung beetles also reduce nuisance fly populations by transporting phoretic mites that eat fly eggs and help control intestinal parasites by reducing dung suitability for worm larvae. The beetles are also an important food source for many other farmland favourites such as bats and birds.

Onthophagus similis with phoretic mites (c) Ceri Watkins

Habitat management

Continuity of the dung supply and diversity of habitat are key factors in supporting a diverse range of dung beetle species on the farm. If possible, maintain some outdoor grazing year-round, even if only a few animals. Planting a group of trees and grazing within them will provide variety of forage and shelter for livestock and support the shade loving dung beetles too.

Broad spectrum livestock wormers such as avermectin are detrimental to beneficial dung invertebrates. These chemicals are excreted in the dung for many weeks after treatment and a range of lethal and sub-lethal effects occur depending on the concentration. Such effects include slowing beetle larvae development, reducing the size attained at adulthood and reduced breeding capacity.

Cutting down the use of chemicals on the farm with a sustainable worm control policy that includes monitoring with faecal egg counts will help. Treating animals only when necessary will save money and also slow the rate of anthelmintic resistance. As a natural alternative in a rotational system, consider using herbal leys. Sainfoin, birdsfoot trefoil and chicory all have anthelmintic properties. The latter has been shown to reduce worm burden in sheep by as much as 40%. In permanent grasslands, mixing up cattle and sheep grazing works by reducing the stocking density of the parasite host - cattle and sheep worms are different species.

Benefits

Supporting dung beetles on your farm not only helps keep pasture and livestock healthy, it also represents good economic sense. It has been estimated that dung beetles save the UK cattle industry £367 million per annum through the provision of ecosystem services (Beynon et al., 2015). So, it really does pay to look after these useful little creatures.

For further information and dung beetle identification resources, please visit the Dung beetle UK Mapping Project website or get in touch via email or twitter.

Case Study: Using hay strewing as a technique to create species-rich grassland

Author: Jennifer Palmer

Farm: High Burnham Farm, Epworth

Aims

High Burnham is a large (+300ha) arable farm.  As part of the RSPB’s Axholme and Idle Farmland Bird Initiative¹ (Lincolnshire), an opportunity was identified to revert an arable field corner to a species-rich meadow.  The 1.7ha field corner sits within the base of a large L-shaped arable field.  Because of the clay-based soil type, the field corner lay wet so was deemed unsuitable for arable cropping hence it was left out of production for four years.

The low-lying field corner lends itself to a pastoral management and is less than 200m from Rush Furlong Meadow SSSI.

This will be the only parcel on the holding managed as grassland.  It is anticipated that hay will be cut by a local contractor used by the Lincs Wildlife Trust and aftermath grazing will be carried out by a local grazier.

Management

Verbal advice and a written proposal were provided to the landowners on species-rich grassland establishment and management.  The RSPB’s Hay Meadow and Arable Reversion topic sheets were used to supplement this verbal and written advice.  The landowners understood the principles of grassland management through knowledge of a local grassland SSSI.

Hay strewing is a tried-and-tested method for enhancing the botanical diversity of species-poor grassland² and can also be used to create diverse grasslands on arable land³.  It entails taking freshly cut ‘green hay’ from a local donor site and, on the same day, strewing (spreading) it onto a suitable receptor site.  It is a cost-effective method and ensures that the received seeds are of local provenance.

Two donor sites were identified and Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust kindly donated and cut the hay from Sedge Hole Close, a damp meadow (MG4 National Vegetation Community) containing cowslip, great burnet, lesser knapweed, oxeye daisy and cuckooflower.  Natural England consent would have been required for using SSSI hay.

Loading a trailer with green hay at East Lound with Matt Cox Lincs Wildlife Trust

Technical advice was followed to ensure the receptor site’s soil was suitable, through testing phosphorus (P) levels.  The soil sample results showed a P Index of 1 (low) so was deemed acceptable.  The farmer prepared the site by spraying off weeds using herbicide and creating a create a fine, firm and level seedbed, avoiding looseness at depth.

The site has no historical significance.

Because the donor site is an NVC MG4 vegetation community, containing abundant great burnet, we followed advice from a floodplain grazing meadow conference (attended by Helen Norford of Yorkshire Wildlife Trust) to spread the hay at reasonable depth (up to 10cm).

Once strewn, in the first year the vegetation growth should be cut up to 4 times and then the grassland should be treated as a traditional hay meadow thereafter.

Because the donor site was smaller than the receptor site (0.9 and 1.7ha respectively) we found that we had a deficit of green hay for the receptor field and a ratio of 1:1 (as recommended by Dr Duncan Westbury) would have worked better.  Partners therefore plan to revisit, survey and repeat if necessary next year.

Black grass growth will also be re-sprayed off this year.

The cost of the green hay was free as it was donated by Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust.

There was a minimal fuel and labour cost incurred by the farmer transporting the two loads of green hay from the donor site to the receptor site.

Achievements

Breeding skylarks have been recorded in adjacent fields during RSPB bird surveys and breeding skylarks are also recorded at Rush Furlong SSSI so the parcels should attract skylarks.  The parcel also offers potential lapwing nesting habitat, providing the additional scrape excavation works are undertaken. There are records of yellowhammers in the hedges and reed buntings nesting in the adjacent OSR crop.

Sitting within the Humberhead Levels NCA, the project meets multiple NCA priorities - the creation of lowland meadow (biodiversity priority) and permanent grassland (landscape priority).

Advice for other farmers

Don’t be tempted to miss out the soil testing step! If phosphorous index is anything above low, species-rich grassland creation may not be viable for your site at this moment in time.

Ground preparation is really important and if strewing onto established grassland, really open up the sward so that lots of bare ground is showing.

Orchids may take several years before they appear so don’t be disheartened if nothing happens for the first few years.

Expect to have to consider repeating the method to ensure a diverse sward.

Additional information

¹ The Axholme and Idle Farmland Bird Initiative covered the river catchment area in the Idle Valley and Isle of Axholme, an area of Lincolnshire, South Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire recognised as being nationally important for its farmland bird assemblage.  The project area was one of the RSPB’s Farm Advice Focus Areas and ran from 2012 to 2018 combining farmland bird monitoring and farm conservation advice.
² Natural England Technical Information Note TIN063, Sward enhancement: diversifying grassland by spreading species-rich green hay.  Also through own experience on land owned by the Malvern Hills Trust, following advice from Dr Duncan Westbury of Worcester University.
³ Visit to arable reversion hay strewing site led by Professor Ian Trueman, 15-18 June 2012, FSC Shropshire Wildflower Weekend.
⁴ Natural England Technical Information Notes: TIN035, Soil sampling for habitat recreation and restoration and TIN036, Soil and agri-environment schemes: interpretation of soil analysis.

Case Study: Helping hedgehogs on farmland

Author: Nida Al-Fulaij, Grants Manager, People’s Trust for Endangered Species

Species: Hedgehog

Why is farmland important for this species?

Hedgehogs are found throughout the UK in all habitats. They have historically been associated with farmland for centuries. Hedgehogs are insectivores, foraging in fields and on grassland for worms, and along field margins and at the base of hedgerows for beetles, snails and other invertebrates. They are considered a generalist species, inhabiting most areas of our countryside, our villages and many areas of our towns too. However, as the dominant habitat in the UK, farmland is particularly important for hedgehogs.

Hedgehogs, like all animals, need to feed, hide from predators and find mates. A variety of habitats that provide foraging areas and secure nesting sites is ideal. Both arable and pasture land can support healthy hedgehog populations. Wide, species-rich hedgerows with buffers of grassy margins on either side provide safe ‘highways’ for hedgehogs to move around the landscape. Hedgerows with wide bases that are managed on rotation should have healthy invertebrate populations for hedgehogs to feed on. Old hedges with dense root systems and lots of deciduous leaves are ideal for them to use as nesting sites, both during the summer and in winter as hibernation spots.

The denser the network of hedges, the more securely hedgehogs can move around, and the higher the availability of prey species for them to feed on.

Recently ploughed fields can provide a bounty of earthworms and other prey; hedgehogs can be found in-field taking the opportunity to feed on invertebrates once crops have been harvested.

Recent studies show hedgehogs are found nearer to farm buildings. These areas could be providing safety from predators on farmland with less robust and fewer hedgerows, and larger fields.

Hedgehog (c) Ben Andrew (rspb-images.com)

Habitat management

Hedgerows:

Increasing hedgerow availability provides more nesting and foraging areas for hedgehogs. Ensure that hedgerows are species-rich, contain native trees and are as wide, high and dense as possible. Maintaining hedge bases at least 2m wide with minimal or no gaps provides secure safe nesting sites. Managing hedgerows on a 3 year rotation ensures that hedges remain diverse and robust.

Field margins:

Field margins provide buffer zones to protect hedgerow bases. 2m margins in arable fields and 3-6m margins in pasture ensures the hedges are protected from trampling and grazing, whilst the grassland provides extra invertebrate prey. Beetle banks also provide buffer zones and extra foraging areas.

Fields:

Smaller field sizes with a mixed crop provides greater variety, and therefore greater food security, for hedgehogs and other wildlife. Increasing hedges and field margins on farms with fewer, larger fields, provides habitat for hedgehogs. Reducing tillage or moving to no-till or conservation agriculture reduces soil compaction, increases soil invertebrates and improves and increases the depth and quality of the soil organic layer.

Pesticide & herbicide use:

Reducing pesticide and herbicide use means that more invertebrate prey, in particular earthworms, will be available on farmland for hedgehogs to feed on.

The above management measures recommended to provide a healthy landscape for hedgehogs are typically those associated with traditional farming practices. There should be no problems, though many of the measures may be more time-consuming than those associated with farming on a larger scale.

Hedgerow with grassy margin (c) Gethin Davies

Peoples Trust for Endangered Species (PTES) and British Hedgehog Preservation Society (BHPS) have created an advice note detailing management and stewardship options that will benefit not only hedgehogs but other wildlife too (see link below).

Benefits and costs

Creating and managing hedgerows sensitively has financial costs but there are stewardship options available; individual ones for the management regimes listed above are detailed in the attached advice note.

Managing a farm for a species such as a hedgehog involves looking at the farm as a whole. Unlike species that fly, such as butterflies, hedgehogs needs the entire landscape to be suitable in order to thrive. Consequently, many of the management techniques recommended to improve habitats for hedgehogs will also provide a healthier landscape. A denser proportion of hedges and associated smaller field sizes both help to reduce soil erosion. Reducing tillage improves soil organic matter and reduces soil compaction.

PTES guide - How to help rural hedgehogs

Case Study: Bare ground for butterflies and moths

Author: Tim Pryor-Lettley
Farm: Matterley Estate, Hampshire

Matterley is a 2400 acre mixed farm with 200 dairy cattle and 1100 acres of arable including wheat, barley and oilseed rape. The estate ownership and farm management has been in the Bruce family for three generations. Peveril Bruce is a member of the Winchester Downs Farm Cluster group. The farm business is diverse and the estate supports a large music festival each year, motorcross, tank driving, cross country runs, cycling events and a large game shoot.  The farm has been in Higher Level Stewardship since 2014.

Aims:

As part of the Section 106 agreement for continuing to run the Boomtown music festival at the site, a decision was made to create a butterfly scrape to establish a breeding area for native Lepidoptera such as the small blue butterfly and the striped lychnis moth. This opportunity arose from a longstanding relationship with Jayne Chapman at Butterfly Conservation. The way in which the work was delivered in partnership with Jayne demonstrates the importance of good relationships and local conservation officers.

Creating the butterfly scrape. Image (c) Jayne Champan, Butterfly Conservation

Management:

The location and size of the butterfly scrape was determined by the local authority. Although when we undertook a site visit with Jayne, she suggested an alternative and more suitable location. We also agreed to make the scrape significantly bigger than the specification. The field earmarked for the scrape is north facing. The optimum location for a butterfly scrape is a warm south-facing slope. To remedy the aspect of the field we scraped the topsoil down to the bare chalk and banked up the soil on the bottom to create a level or near south-facing part to the bank. The work was undertaken in October 2017 and will be seeded by South Downs National Park Authority with a mix of kidney vetch, rock rose, dark mullein, knapweed, scabious and bird’s-foot trefoil with local provenance seed.

In terms of effort, the 20m x 5m scrape took about half a day to create and the ongoing management will be about an hour a year. This work will involve ensuring that grasses and weeds don’t encroach or dominate the scrape. This will be controlled using a herbicide around the edge and spot treatment where necessary.

Small blue butterfly. Image (c) Andrew Cooper, Butterfly Conservation

Achievements:

It’s too soon to say whether or not the bank has worked as it is yet to be seeded. We hope that it becomes home to breeding populations of the target species. However the continued benefits from having a great working relationship with the Butterfly Conservation officer are tangible. Jayne has helped steer us to think differently about lots of activities on the estate. These include teaching us how useful even a small amount of bare chalk is for creating habitat and that the areas around the farm where we expose the chalk do not need to be 'tidied up.' We now understand that disturbance (even just a very small amount) is a key part of sustaining biodiversity. We now look at our activities quite differently.

Working with Butterfly Conservation has also led us to thinking about different activities in a more pro-biodiversity way. An example is the creation of a new drinking water reservoir that will be landscaped to help encourage a variety of species. Jayne has given us such friendly, positive and practical advice and has provided leaflets to educate us about the importance of different species.

Creating the butterfly scrape. Image (c) Jayne Chapman, Butterfly Conservation

Advice for other farmers:

It’s really easy to do something very small that results in big, positive impacts. Building a relationship with a local conservation officer can help with many areas of the farm management. They aren’t scary and they do understand the needs of the business whilst offering practical ideas on how to tweak things so that more benefits for farm wildlife can be created.

For more information on the striped lychnis moth and the small blue butterfly use these Butterfly Conservation species factsheets.

Header image: Striped lychnis larva (c) Andy Foster

Case Study: Do we really need to feed the birds?

Nicholas Watts from Vine House Farm shares his experience of providing additional seed food for birds on his farm, and the benefits this has had for tree sparrows in particular.

I am often asked do we really need to feed the birds? As someone who sells bird food I am bound to say yes, but we are only selling bird food because people asked me to sell them bird food when they came to see all the birds that I was feeding on the farm.

Why was I feeding so many birds?

Because they were hungry. And they were hungry because when you look across farmland today there really isn’t much food out there.

In the 1970’s I was doing bird surveys for the Lincolnshire bird club and the British Trust for Ornithology but none of them were on Vine House Farm. In 1982 I decided to do a bird survey on our farm to record the birds breeding on the farm. I did the survey and have done it every year since but by 1992 I realised that there had been a big drop in numbers; skylarks had declined by 60% and corn buntings by 90% in just 10 years.

This worried me, so I wondered what could be done about it. I started feeding birds in my farmyards during the winter months and I was soon feeding a lot of birds, up to 800, nearly all of them were buntings and finches. All these birds created a spectacle and I wanted other people to see this spectacle so I organised an open day. At that open day 2 or 3 people asked me if I could sell them some bird food. I hesitated but did sell them some.

The next year I had the same spectacle so organised another open day. Again all the proceeds were donated to the Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust and again people asked me to sell them some bird food, there I was selling bird food without even trying.

Image: Nicholas Watts

From the situation in my farmyards it would appear that birds need feeding during the winter months.

Birds were not having a party, they were simply on the farm to eat food. These open days continued for another 10 years, and even though the birds had a surplus of food all through the winter numbers were dropping off. They left our farm in the spring, not because I stopped feeding them, but because they needed to return to all the various habitats where they liked to breed or where they were bred.

However there are problems out there for breeding birds  in the countryside with crops often sprayed several times. Herbicides kill unwanted plants, and if we kill these plants there is nowhere for the insects to live, fungicides kill off foliar diseases which some insects live on and insecticides kill the insects that could be living on the crop. If this happens across most crops, there becomes a shortage of insects on farm land.

Birds can’t take water to their chicks, so it has to be included in their food as either insects or unripe seeds. Fewer insects means less available food which is not very good for the survival of chicks, so unless there are sufficient insects in the countryside they will decline.

About 10 years ago tree sparrows appeared at Vine House Farm, and so I started to feed them. I also erected nest boxes and numbers have built up. I feed them with red millet all through the year and we now have 175 nest boxes up. 150 of them were occupied and this year they reared about 1100 young tree sparrows.

Image: Nicholas Watts

Our tree sparrows at Vine House Farm are an example of a population increase when there is a surplus of food – seed through the winter and insects through the breeding season. If we want to see a lot of birds we have to breed a lot of birds, feeding them all through the year.

Read more about the conservation work on the farm at www.vinehousefarm.co.uk

Case study: Herb-rich leys

Author: Ian Boyd
Farm: Whittington Lodge Farm, Gloucestershire

Aims:

Whittington Lodge Farm has predominately thin Cotswold Brash soils on 280ha, mostly over 800 feet in altitude. The cultivated half of the farm was in a continuous arable system, but average yields meant it was only marginally viable and blackgrass was creeping in.

In 2015, it was decided to undergo organic conversion on all the arable area to combine with the fully organic grassland. Herb-rich leys were introduced into the rotation to build fertility for the organic cereals. They are grazed by an existing and expanded suckler herd of native Hereford cows and calves.

Cattle grazing a herb-rich ley at Whittington Lodge Farm. Image credit: Ian Boyd

Management:

The herb-rich leys contain at least 5 species of grass, 5 legumes and 5 herbs which all add to the biodiversity with varying rooting depth in the shallow soils. They are established by under-sowing in spring barley crops, broadcast with an Opico seeder/harrow once the barley plants have reached the 3 leaf stage. This way the undersown plants are still small enough not to interfere with the barley combining. Grazing can begin in the autumn.

The herb-rich ley can last for 4 years and can be grazed or conserved as hay or silage. It can fit in well with other grasslands like permanent pasture with the management of grazing livestock.

Mob grazing can help achieve the best from the leys. The cattle are moved frequently, usually daily, onto fresh grazing and a back fence stops them eating any re-growth after about 3 days. The adage is that you should not see the cattle’s knees when they go in and you should not see their ankles when they come out. Some of the herbage is eaten, some trampled and some left so that the root structure underneath the plants is maintained and re-growth is rapid.

Then, most importantly, the ley is rested for a couple of months to allow plants to flower and set seed before the next grazing. This will provide habitat for invertebrates, including crop pollinators, and improve soil structure and water infiltration.

Moving the electric fence is a daily commitment but it makes it easier to check and count the stock as they run past.

The cost of seed is significant but no nitrogen is required, and it is possible to incorporate this option into a Countryside Stewardship scheme and claim payments for it.

As the soil organic matter level is improved, more grass will be grown and stocking rates will be able to be increased. This system suits both cattle and sheep on organic and non-organic farms.

Achievements:

There are multiple benefits to herb-rich leys. When terminated, they provide an ideal entry to cereal crops for several years, organic or not. The arable weed spectrum is dramatically reduced, especially blackgrass.
Soil health and organic matters levels will have been increased with large amounts of carbon sequestered into the soil, far more than the effects of methane produced by the cattle.

The nutrient density of the beef will be greater when multiple species and biodiversity are eaten with knock-on health benefits for the cattle and consumer.

The farmland wildlife is a big winner here, with many different plants flowering producing nectar for pollinating insects and producing seed (and insects) for many bird species to eat. Skylarks nest everywhere, hares and roe deer love to graze it. Kestrels and barn owls hunt for short-tailed field voles living in the long grass and snipe are increasingly being seen looking for worms in the winter time.

It really helps to be organised and to have planned the rotational grazing before the start of the season. Access to water, ease of moving electric fences and having the cattle in the right place at the right date all have to be factored in.

This system really suits British native breeds of cattle, which can readily be managed to Pasture-for-Life standards (essentially no grain fed). Pasture-for-Life beef allows the opportunity to brand and market it yourself with a great story for a higher price than the beef commodity market can pay.

www.cotswoldbeef.com

Case Study: Restoration of rank wetland habitats to benefit waders

Author: Dan Brown, Dr Duncan Allison & Sarah Bird
Farm: Anston Farm, Dunsyre, South Lanarkshire

Aims:

Anston is a 651 ha mixed upland livestock farm in South Lanarkshire. A variety of habitats can be found across the farm. The hill ground includes dry heath and acid grassland, whilst the upper in-bye fields contain a mixture of permanent pasture and grass/clover leys. The in-bye on the lower ground runs down to the South Medwin river and it is here, on the river floodplains, that marshy grassland dominates, with scattered remnants of lowland raised bog nearby.

Over numerous years the field had become wetter, as drains stopped being maintained. This, in combination with reduced grazing levels and no cutting, resulted in the dominance of marshy grassland vegetation (primarily soft rush) and grasses (e.g. tufted hair-grass). The vegetation had become too tall and dense to be used by waders, as confirmed by a 2013 RSPB breeding wader survey which surveyed the entire valley within which Anston sits. No waders were breeding on the wetland, but curlews, lapwings, redshanks, snipe and oystercatchers were all recorded on adjacent fields. The decision was made to try and improve the habitat, knowing that birds were nearby to take advantage of improvements.

Management:

The RSPB provided advice, including the importance of cutting and grazing in order to keep wetland vegetation sufficiently low in height, in order to attract breeding and feeding waders.

In September 2014, AMW Arboreal were contracted to carry out one day’s work with a Softrak, a low ground-pressure vehicle equipped with a forage harvester, chipper, reed cutting head and heather cutter. This allows management of rank rush, reed, heather and scrub whilst protecting wetland surfaces. It has an average speed of 1-2 mph and can cut between one-third and half a hectare per day.

Around 0.5 ha of dense rush pasture was cut and removed, with cuttings piled together to compost over the following year (a composting licence may be required for larger jobs). This work was undertaken as part of a management agreement between Dr Allison and the RSPB.

The following summer (2015), Dr Allison used a tractor-mounted flail mower to cut re-growth and access other uncut areas, using the open areas and ‘rides’ that had been cut into the dense rush by the Softrak. As a result of the benefits from this initial work, the decision was made to scale up the management for the remainder of the wetland, and a further 6 days of rush cutting with the Softrak were carried out in March 2016. This time, cuttings were left on site to mulch down, as Dr Allison felt there would be benefits for soil fertility (see below).

Dr Allison used a Kverneland FXJ flail topper, which was found to have benefits over the more conventional whale tail (hammer) head flail, or long swinging blade vertical axis type pasture topper. The FXJ is fitted with pairs of swinging "J" shaped flail blades with intermediate fan lifter fingers. The blades cut and shred the dense rush more efficiently than other machines, with near double the forward travel speed being achieved. The shredding action pulps the fibrous vegetation which was blown from the rear of the machine and left on the surface. The deposited shredded material composted down far quicker than when cut by the farms other topping machines, and quantity and variation of flora and fauna species regrowth was noticeably improved. Additionally, shredding and allowing the rush vegetation to compost on the surface returns potash to the soil, a distinct advantage over removing the cut vegetation. Carting away the vegetation ultimately reduces the fertility of what is already poor land.

Wetlands are problematic and in certain situations can potentially be dangerous. Dense cover can prevent ground visibility, and many farmers are concerned about getting equipment stuck as a result. Similarly, livestock safety becomes an issue where there are unknown or obscured ditches which may prevent grazing.

By removing the dense rush with the Softrak, Dr Allison had a much better understanding of ground conditions i.e. the location of ditches and waterlogged areas. This enabled him to access the site with the quad during drier weather, and gave him the confidence to put sheep out in greater numbers.

The wetland has been brought back into a condition that will allow further follow-up management during dry periods in the future.

Benefits and costs

One of the benefits to arise is increased grazing. During drier periods, sheep are now put out onto the site, allowing grazing of grasses and herbs previously hidden by the rush pasture. There is more grass than was expected; it has taken the removal of rushes to ‘open up’ the sward and make apparent.

A second benefit is access. The micro-topography of the site is now clear to see; standard machinery (quads, tractors) can now enter the site. Previously, the site was a no-go zone due to fear of getting stuck.

Continued rush management and grazing will also benefit the farm business in the longer-term; it will improve habitats for target species within agri-environment schemes, and demonstrates a willingness on part of Dr Allison to maximise his management for wildlife. In time, this should enhance his chances of entering future agri-environment schemes. Removing tall dense rush will increase evapotranspiration, allowing the wetland to dry out more quickly during the summer, in turn making site management requirements easier to undertake (i.e. machinery and livestock access).

In terms of costs, the Softrak work was funded by a local RSPB budget for conservation work in South Lanarkshire. This funding stream was earmarked for trialling novel management techniques that couldn’t be funded through existing agri-environment options. The contractors used cost £360 per day (plus haulage).

In addition, fluke is present in the area and it is acknowledged that grazing these areas may increase the chances of infection.

Tips for other farmers

Due to the high costs involved, a Softrak is likely to only be appropriate in certain circumstances. At Anston, the farm lies within a valley that supports important populations of lapwings, curlews, snipe, redshanks and oystercatchers. It would make sense that the two following criteria are met if considering using a Softrak elsewhere:

a) priority species are adjacent to the site so there is a high chance of utilising the improved habitat

b) it should only be used on farms that possess suitable equipment for follow-up management (topping, grazing) as well as a clear understanding and commitment on the part of the farmer or land manager to undertake the follow-up management.