Dairy farm creating a buzz

Authors: Gethin Davies (RSPB), Anna Hobbs (BBCT), Stuart Taylor (farmer, Argoed)

Dairying can be a challenging sector for farmers and wildlife. Small margins have driven increasing efficiency and specialisation, which has tended to squeeze out people and space for nature. The number of dairy farmers in the UK has declined by two thirds since 1995.

Argoed Farm in North Wales showcases an alternative vision for dairying, one where nature and minimising environmental impacts are at the heart of the system.

Farming at Argoed

Argoed has been in the family of Stuart Taylor for more than 100 years. He farms it with the help of Robert and Owen Evans who have worked with him for over 20 years. As its current custodian, Stuart feels a strong responsibility to farm it well, and this extends to the farm’s natural environment, from its soil to the wildlife that share the fields overlooking the town of Mold in North Wales. This was a driver for converting to organic in 2000. The 68 hectare farm currently milks around 65 cows, selling milk through the Calon Wen organic dairy co-operative.

'Adopting a low input approach across the whole farm not only allows more space for nature to thrive – it’s also a more cost-effective way of farming.' Stuart Taylor

Stuart has kept faith with the traditional British Friesian cow. They average 6 to 7 lactations (around double the industry average), have excellent fertility and suit his focus on producing milk from grazed grass and conserved forage as he looks to minimise bought-in concentrate feed. The farm used to grow cereals in a rotation with grass but has moved to maintaining the whole farm as permanent grassland, with grass reseeding done by over-sowing into a minimally disturbed soil surface. He feels this brings more resilience to the system with the increasingly unpredictable weather making bare ground at reseeding a challenge.

Stuart has always tried to fit in wildlife conservation measures where he can, such as restoring hedgerows, digging ponds and putting up nest boxes. Recently, along with other Calon Wen farmers, he’s been working with the Bumblebee Conservation Trust and the RSPB on the Pasture for Pollinators project, which trialled simple grassland management changes to boost pollen and nectar resources for bumblebees and other pollinators.

'As a farmer it’s my responsibility to look after nature and the environment on the farm as best as I can whilst I’m here.'

This project showed Argoed to have a wealth of habitats on the farm, providing the foundations for a rich food web. Although the farm is visibly nature-friendly, we wanted a way to objectively illustrate why and how Stuart’s system delivers for wildlife.

Herb-rich grasslands underpin milk production on Argoed. Image (c) Anna Hobbs

How ‘Fair to Nature’?

We tallied all the various opportunities for nature on Argoed against the criteria of the Fair To Nature standard. This looks at the percentage of the farm delivering the Farm Wildlife key actions, accounting for both non-farmed habitats such as hedgerows and ponds as well as in-field nature-friendly cropping and grassland practices. This information also provides a means to benchmark a farm’s habitat delivery over time, and potentially, with other similar farms.

Established wildlife habitats

Well-established farmland habitats are often the most wildlife-rich. On Argoed, this included a network of dense hedgerows, some small areas of woodland and scrub, and around 3ha of species-rich grassland.

Stuart believes the area of species-rich grassland hasn’t been ploughed for at least 120 years, but did receive inputs of slurry and fertiliser into the 1980s. In the last few decades he has been managing it as a hay meadow and inputs have been restricted to composted farmyard manure. He has seen plant diversity increase and the area now includes abundant ribwort plantain, yarrow, vetch, trefoil and black knapweed, with the occasional orchid starting to appear. The hay is a valued feed for the farm’s youngstock.

The field boundaries are predominantly multi-species hedgerows with many hedgerow trees, both developing and mature. Stuart trims the hedges rotationally to increase flowering and fruiting, and into a dense A shape between restoration events to provide abundant shelter and wildlife habitat.

Dense rotationally trimmed hedgerows provide corridors for insects and other species. Image (c) Stuart Taylor

Although outside the farmed area, a small traditional orchard and farm garden provide early blossom and a wide diversity of flowering plants to help pollinators obtain a continuous source of food. Wet features on the farm include three ponds, two holding water for most of the year, the other seasonally.

Flower and seed-rich habitats within the farming system

As Argoed is organic, there is a need for leguminous plants to bring nitrogen into the farming system. Stuart has been increasingly sowing diverse legume and herb mixes into his grassland, and these provide an excellent source of pollen and nectar for insects if the grazing and mowing management allows them to flower. Such grassland can be included within ‘Fair to Nature’ with a conversion factor, since the wildlife benefits, although positive, are lower per hectare than semi-natural habitats or those created primarily for nature conservation.

Grazing practices allow plants to flower and seed. Image (c) Stuart Taylor

Around 42ha of grassland is periodically over-sown with a herbal mix containing a variety of grasses along with red, white and alsike clover, ribwort plantain and chicory. This grassland area is rotationally grazed or mown for silage, where three cuts are taken with a forage wagon. Having both white and red clovers in the sward caters for both short- and long-tongued bumblebees.

The ‘Pasture for Pollinators’ project trialled leaving unmown strips in the herbal leys to extend the flowering period. If such margins are not left, widescale silage cutting can mean the local landscape can go from ‘feast to famine’ for insects overnight.

Uncut herbal mix strip. Image (c) Anna Hobbs

Bumblebee Conservation Trust surveys identified all Big 7’ widespread bumblebee species to be present on the farm, along with a diversity of other pollinators. In addition to abundant flower-rich habitat, the farm also provides good nesting opportunities for bumblebees and other pollinators through tussocky grass, bare earth in sunny locations on tracksides and field edges, and some dry-stone walls.

Common carder bee. Image (c) Anna Hobbs

Beyond the 3ha of semi-natural grassland, there is another 9ha of long-term permanent grassland that isn’t over-seeded, some parts of which contain a high diversity of flowering plants, including yarrow, self-heal, lesser trefoil, sheep’s sorrel and finer grasses such as sweet vernal. Some of this land is grazed with youngstock and some is made into hay, weather permitting. This area was counted with the legume-rich grassland at a corrected value, rather than as semi-natural, but with ongoing appropriate management this can change in future.
A total of 7.8% of the farm is made up of a variety of well-established semi-natural habitats. The main area of productive but also wildlife-friendly grassland management contributed significantly, bringing the total for the farm to around 23%. Research has shown that if between 10% and 20% of farmland can be managed in a diversity of high-quality habitats, it will provide a major buffer to the negative effects caused by increasing agricultural productivity.

Nature-friendly Argoed

‘In the past, wildlife was a by-product of farming, but farmers now have to make a choice of how nature-friendly they want to be.’

Argoed highlights that despite the immense pressures in dairying, we still have wildlife-friendly systems to champion. We need future agricultural policy to better support farmland habitats and nature-friendly practices for the many public goods they provide and help farming deliver them at scale. But perhaps the most important way we can support nature-positive food producers like Stuart is to buy their produce, giving confidence for more farmers to do similar, and drive the creation of landscapes where farmland wildlife can thrive.

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Fair To Nature habitat requirements

All Fair to Nature farms manage at least 10% of their farmed area in a range of wildlife habitats based on the following specifications:

• Existing wildlife habitats – including native woodland planted on farmland since 1992, semi-natural grassland, heathland and other high nature value habitats – no minimum (contributes towards the 10%)

• Flower-rich habitats – minimum 4%

• Seed-rich habitats – minimum 2% (not obligatory on farms with less than 10% cropped land)

• Wildlife-rich field boundaries and margins – minimum 1%

• Wet features – one feature per 100ha, average size 25m2 (area contributes towards the 10%)

These specifications are based on the Farm Wildlife partnership’s key actions for farmland wildlife. Several habitats have a conversion factor since the wildlife benefits, although positive, are lower per hectare than semi-natural habitats or habitats created primarily for nature conservation.

Managing hedges for pollinators

Author: Steven Falk

It’s easy to be dismissive of insects, yet about one-third of all the food we consume has required a pollinator to put it there, and by pollinator, I don’t just mean honey bees. Nearly one-quarter of Britain’s 24,000 insect species visit flowers and wild bees, hoverflies and moths are especially important. Even the dungflies that sit on cowpats and the blowflies that develop in carrion pollinate flowers. In fact, some research has suggested that honey bees only do about one-third of Britain’s crop pollination.

Image (c) Steven Falk

Farmland provides a variety of broad habitats and more specialised microhabitats that support pollinators and help sustain pollinator abundance and diversity within the British countryside. Hedges and the many microhabitats that they support are especially important, so the way you manage them, or establish new ones, is crucial.

There are five broad ways:

  • As a source of blossoms and flowers for adult foraging
  • As a source of many larval habitats
  • As a windbreak that aids pollinator activity and movement
  • As a source of shade and humidity, especially during droughts and heatwaves
  • As a component of a larger, interacting, landscape-scale habitat mosaic

Hedge blossoms are crucially important in early and mid spring before other flowers have got going, and I’m always keen to promote the concept of a ‘good blossom sequence.’ A simple blossom sequence might just entail blackthorn (peaking mid April) and hawthorn (peaking mid May). But if further blossoming species can be added to a hedge network, this can provide a longer and more continuous source of pollen and nectar. This could include cherry plum, goat willow and common gorse (which peak before blackthorn), field maple and crab apple (which peak between blackthorn and hawthorn), and guelder rose, dogwood and elder (which peak after hawthorn). The choice can be shaped around location and soil type and can be arranged at a farm unit level – I’m not advocating all those species in one hedge! But bear in mind that an abundance of spring blossom will help ensure you see more bumblebees, hoverflies and butterflies in summer.

Image (c) Steven Falk

Blossoming hedge trees such as wild cherry, willows or outgrown field maples or crab apples can add to that blossom offer. Hedge trees of all sorts (including ash and oak) can also provide an important larval habitat for pollinators. The foliage can be a food source for herbivorous butterflies and moths. Heart rot and aerial rot holes are the breeding sites for various hoverflies, and any dead limbs or dead trunks in the sun can be a breeding site for a variety of solitary bees and wasps, including the red mason bee – a fabulous pollinator of fruit trees.

Further crucial hedge microhabitats for pollinators are hedge banks, hedge ditches and hedge margins. Hedge banks (which can be very ancient) will often support large nesting aggregations of mining bees. These can be very important pollinators of fruit trees and oilseed rape. Abandoned mouse and vole burrows in banks are important nesting sites for bumblebees. Water-filled hedge ditches can be a breeding site for a variety of hoverflies and also double up as very flowery features, often supporting an abundance of meadowsweet, great willowherb, yellow iris etc. Even where no ditches are present, the margins of hedges can provide a useful source of flowers such as brambles, cow parsley, hogweed, thistles, hedge woundwort and white dead-nettle. That becomes enhanced if you have a decent buffer strip between the hedge and any crop, or a fence that stops stock grazing right up to the hedge.

Image (c) Steven Falk

The final benefit of hedges, which is all-too-often overlooked is their value as windbreaks. Pollinators don’t like strong breezes. Hedges help create pockets of calmer, warmer air that helps pollinator movement and activity. On a cool, breezy spring day of perhaps 10 °C, a sheltered, sunny edge of a field with blackthorn blossom might be reaching 15 °C and supporting huge amounts for pollinator activity. Warm microclimates are also important for the development of herbivorous larvae such as caterpillars and the nesting activity of bees. Hedges play a crucial role in shaping microclimates and therefore pollinator activity.

There is so much – but if I had to recommend just three things they would be:

  1. Enhance your hedge blossom sequences – check what is currently there and consider what extra things could be added that enhance the blossom sequence, especially prior to the Blackthorn peak (given that warm weather increasingly starts in late winter).
  2. Cut your hedges on a 3-4 year rotation (i.e. one-third or one-quarter each year) because less frequently cut hedges produce more blossom, become structurally more diverse, and produce better microclimates (including valuable humid-shaded microclimates within them or on their shaded sides as well as the warm ones on their sunny sides).
  3. Allow flowery hedge margins to develop – encourage those lovely shows of Cow Parsley, Hogweed, Teasel etc. and embrace some limited Bramble, thistles and ragworts. Don’t cut these areas whilst they are still flowery, and don’t feel you need to sow an artificial pollen and nectar mix here if nature is already producing a nice range of flowers.

This is a summary of a very big subject. But I hope it is useful.

 

Introducing Fair to Nature – a new partner for Farm Wildlife

When we developed the Farm Wildlife approach, we wanted to make sure that the advice was not only simple to follow, but based on the latest evidence so that it would work – both for farmers and for wildlife.

A new partner for Farm Wildlife

We are therefore delighted to welcome Fair to Nature to the Farm Wildlife partnership. The Fair to Nature scheme recognises the value of the Farm Wildlife approach, and the six key actions are embedded into the updated Fair to Nature standard. This ensures farmers who are signed up to the scheme really work towards maintaining and improving the habitats on their farms for wildlife and that they are recognised for their efforts by the consumers who purchase the end product.

"Fair to Nature is the only UK farm scheme to deliver the scale of land management that wildlife requires to thrive. And Fair to Nature is not just positive for wildlife! Farmers benefit from increased farm resilience and from links to like-minded brands who want to source nature-friendly produce and products," says Shelley Abbott, facilitator for the scheme.

Delivering habitats

Fair to Nature farms are required to manage at least 10% of their farmed area as a range of wildlife habitats aligned with the six key Farm Wildlife actions. The delivery of these habitats is based on the following specifications:

  • Existing wildlife habitats – including native woodland planted on farmland since 1992, semi-natural grassland, heathland and other high-nature value habitats – no minimum, but contributes towards the 10%
  • Flower-rich habitats across at least 4% of the farmed area
  • Seed-rich habitats across at least 2% of the farmed area, although this habitat is not a requirement on farms with less than 10% cropped land
  • Wildlife-rich field boundaries and margins covering at least 1% of the farmed area
  • Wet features – one feature per 100 ha, average size 25 m2 (area contributes towards the 10%)
  • In-field habitats – no minimum, but contribute towards the 10%

Habitat on a Fair to Nature farm. Image (c) Shelley Abbott
Wider sustainability

The wider sustainability of the farm is also important. Soil, carbon and pesticide management are therefore also key considerations within Fair to Nature to ensure that a holistic approach across the whole farm is adopted, for the benefit of nature and the long-term resilience of the farm business.

If you would like to find out more about Fair to Nature, or you’re interested in signing up, please visit www.fairtonature.org for further details and to register your interest.

New research: What limits bumblebee populations on farmland?

Authors: Dr Tom Timberlake and Prof Jane Memmott 

A new study by Tom Timberlake and colleagues at the University of Bristol shows how important late summer flowers and rural gardens can be for supporting bumblebees on UK farmland.

Does this offer an opportunity to devise more targeted agri-environment schemes for pollinators?

Pollen and nectar are the main source of food for bees, including the charismatic and agriculturally important bumblebee. It is no surprise then that declining flower densities – particularly on farmland – are considered one of the most important drivers of pollinator decline. Agri-environment schemes which incentivise the planting of wildflower strips and the expansion of semi-natural flowering habitats such as hedgerows and field margins are an important tool for reversing pollinator declines, but are they really the most efficient way of supporting pollinators?

Image 1: For bumblebees like this one (Bombus terrestris), it’s not just about how much food is available, it’s also when that food is available through the year. A dandelion flowering in early spring for example, would be more valuable to a bumblebee than an equivalent flower in mid-summer.
Image: T. Timberlake

Whilst agri-environment schemes have successfully increased the overall numbers of flowers on farmland, they tend to overlook the timing of when these flowers are available to pollinators. Different plants flower at different times and most of the plants in agri-environment schemes flower in late spring and early summer which often isn’t the period of greatest need for pollinators. Pollinators need a continuous supply of food throughout their flight season, and for species with long flight seasons such as bumblebees, this means from late February, right through until October. ‘Hunger gaps’ of even one week could limit the number of pollinators surviving through the year.

Hunger gaps

To support pollinators in the most effective and cost-efficient way, it makes sense to find out when these hunger gaps occur and then devise targeted management or planting schemes to plug these gaps. A previous study by our team did just this and showed that nectar supplies on farmland were most limited in early spring (March) and late summer.

To check what effect these ‘hunger gaps’ were having on bumblebee populations, we carried out a study on 12 farms around the west of England. We captured, recorded and released hundreds of bumblebees and then measured all sorts of features of the farms to find out which aspects of the farm were most important in determining bumblebee density.

To our surprise, the supply of nectar in late summer (September) was by far the most important factor driving bumblebee density on these farms – more so even than the amount of natural habitat. Late summer is a very important stage in the lifecycle of bumblebees – it is when new queens are produced and must pile on the pounds before their winter hibernation. A rich supply of flowers is therefore crucial, but with fewer and fewer hay meadows, cover crops and weedy areas to provide this late summer nectar on farmland, bumblebees are struggling.

Image 2: Low nectar supplies in late summer coincide with an important stage in the colony lifecycle, limiting colony density the following year. How might we change the shape of this curve to reduce the September bottleneck?

How to plug the gap

So what can we do to plug this late-summer hunger gap on farmland and support bumblebees? On our farms at least, ivy was the most important plant for providing nectar during this sparse time, so managing your hedgerows and woodland edges to promote this amazing plant is a good first step. Leaving some rough weedy corners for late flowering species like thistles, knapweed, scabious and dandelions can also contribute to plugging the gap.

We found that Environmental Stewardship Scheme pollen and nectar mixes were really effective at increasing overall nectar supplies but were far more effective when mown early, or in multiple phases, to extend flowering into the late summer.

Finally, if you want to give those hungry queen bumblebees a real treat in the run-up to autumn, a tasty cover crop of late-flowering red clover would do just the trick. A single hectare of this crop could provide around 1 kilogram of raw nectar sugar each day and completely close the late summer gap.

There was one final surprise in our results… Small patches of garden were having a significant influence on the density of bumblebees. Farms with more gardens had more bumblebee colonies.

Gardens have a far denser and more diverse supply of flowers than farmland and are often managed to keep things flowering throughout the whole year. These little floral oases seem to be throwing bumblebees a lifeline during periods when farmland offers very little.

Image 3: Species which flower in September such as dandelions, red clover, ivy and thistles (clockwise from top left) are likely to be disproportionately important to bumblebees and other pollinators. Including these and other late-flowering species in conservation schemes will help fill the late summer hunger gap.
Images: T. Timberlake & Wikimedia Commons

How much and when

The take home message is that it’s not just about how much food we provide for pollinators, it’s also about when that food is available through the year.

Providing more flowers in the early spring and late summer when bumblebees are at their hungriest is a great way to support these important creatures.

Image 4: Some examples of low quality (left) and high quality (right) farmland habitats for pollinators. The more diverse and flower-rich high quality habitats tend to provide a more consistent supply of nectar through the year, helping to fill those important hunger gaps.
Image: Nick Tew

This article is the summary of a University of Bristol-led research paper published by Thomas Timberlake, Jane Memmott, Ian Vaughan and Mathilde Baude in the Journal of Applied Ecology. The work was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) with additional support from the NERC Biomolecular Analysis Facility.

Case study: Reversion of arable land to lowland chalk grassland

Author: Lynne Roberts:  The RSPB’s Manor Farm, Newton Tony, Wiltshire

Aims and setting

Chalk grassland is one of the richest landscapes for wildlife in the UK and is a habitat which has suffered significant losses in past decades. This case study focuses on Manor Farm in Wiltshire, now the operational base of RSPB’s Winterbourne Downs nature reserve, which was acquired by the RSPB in 2005 with the overall objective of creating a habitat ‘stepping-stone’ for wildlife between two internationally important chalk grassland areas: Salisbury Plain and Porton Down.

To enable wildlife species to thrive on the farm and expand their range from the neighbouring chalk grassland areas, much of the arable farmland was reverted to lowland calcareous grassland, a UK priority Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) habitat. An initial reversion of about 40ha in 2006 has been followed by further grassland creation projects at the rate of around 25ha per year, and now almost 200ha of the total farm area of 296ha has been reverted to semi-natural chalk grassland.

Agri-environmental scheme grants from Natural England and capital grants from the Heritage Lottery Fund were major contributors to the reversion works.
This case study describes in detail the reversion of a 24ha area of arable land, started in 2008.

Site preparation and sowing

In order to select the most conducive sites for reversion, soil samples from across the farm were analysed. It is recognised that land with low nutrient levels, particularly available phosphorous, is the most suitable for creating and restoring species-rich grassland – the best sites will have a phosphate index of between 0 and 1. The results of this showed much of the farm to have high soil phosphate levels and two fields totalling 24ha with a phosphate index of around 2 were selected.

Machine-sowing of harvested seed was chosen as the most suitable method of starting off the reversion process. Natural re-colonisation was thought to be unlikely to produce the right levels of target species, since this requires plentiful supplies of nearby seed – something which could not be guaranteed, especially over such a large area.

A mixture of brush-harvested wildflower and grass seed was sourced from four local downland sites, including the Salisbury Plain Training Area, where there are several thousand hectares of good quality calcareous grassland. Using locally sourced seed increases the chances that the plants will thrive, as they will be better adapted to the local conditions.

After harvesting the last arable crop from the selected fields, a sterile seed bed was created by spraying with glyphosate and cultivating with a spring-tine cultivator to provide a good tilth. A few weeks later, in mid-September, the wildflower/grass seed mix was sown using a pneumatic fertiliser spreader, which blows out the seed from tubes spaced 1m apart along an 18m boom width.

Seed Sowing

The seed was mixed with kiln-dried sand to improve the flow of seed through the spreader and sown at a rate of 20kg per hectare. Four complete passes of the spreader were made to ensure good distribution of the seed. The fields were then rolled with a Cambridge roller to ensure good contact with the soil.  The approximate cost for this (in 2008) was just under £900 per hectare, split between herbicide (17%), seed (76%), dried sand (2%) and labour and diesel (5%).

Early establishment and management

In the first year, the sites looked very patchy, although many chalk grassland species were showing by midsummer, such as salad burnet and small scabious. The fields were topped once in early May, timing the cut to catch most of the black grass and other unwanted plants such as thistles and docks before seed set.

Patchy coverage in the first spring after autumn sowing

An early cut avoids topping more than 25% of the yellow rattle, which is a key species in the arable reversion process. Yellow rattle is semi-parasitic on grasses and clovers, suppressing grass growth and increasing the light available for other wildflowers to prosper.

The side shoots from the yellow rattle and the other chalk grassland species were then allowed to flower and set seed and a further cut was made in July. The arisings from this July cut were collected and removed to prevent mulching and help drive down the nutrient levels, allowing the flowering species to compete effectively with the grasses.

Yellow rattle helps to keep the sward open

Sheep were introduced in the Autumn/Winter to create a short open sward with occasional tussocks, which created some habitat diversity in an otherwise flat field. In the following two years, hay crops were taken to further reduce soil nutrients levels, with aftermath sheep grazing from autumn to early spring. Supplementary feeding was avoided to prevent the import of nutrients.

Assessing for habitat quality

By the third year after sowing the plant community was typical of early grassland creation, with a large diversity of species present – 37 species were recorded inside the assessment quadrats, with a further 21 species elsewhere in the sward. These included species which are characteristic of chalk grassland and typical of nutrient-poor conditions. Analysis of the species makeup showed that there were five ‘dominant’ or ‘abundant’ wildflower species: yellow rattle, ribwort plantain, black medick, self-heal and white clover. Of those recorded at lower frequencies, several were chalk indicator species, including harebell, perforate St. John’s wort and field scabious, as well as those listed in the Natural England ‘species indicators’ table below. The woodier perennials like greater knapweed, oxeye daisy and wild marjoram were establishing well.

Of the typical grasses present, sheep’s fescue was dominant, with quaking grass, upright brome, yellow oat-grass, meadow oat-grass and common bent also recorded.

Year three – a herb-rich sward is establishing

The following table shows the criteria for success set out by Natural England for this type of habitat and how the reversion fields measured up against these criteria:

The importance of soil fungi and organic matter

We found that some species were slower to establish than others. This is likely to be due to the abundance and diversity of mycorrhizal fungi present in the soil. Intensive arable agriculture reduces this diversity, and some plant species will not be able to exist on the land until the correct fungi arrive. It wasn’t until about four years after the start of the reversion that the first signs of fungal colonisation, the ‘fairy rings’, could be seen and species such as dropwort and devil’s-bit scabious began to appear. It was more than five years after sowing before any orchids were spotted, which is likely to be an indicator of the developing populations of mycorrhizal fungi.

Some good indicator species like saw-wort, have still not been recorded, although we know the seed was sown. This could be due to the soil conditions or plant associations not yet being right for them to get established.

Fairy rings show signs of mycorrhizal fungi

The levels of organic matter in the soil were extremely low to begin with, at around 2%, which is consistent with the land having been in long-term continuous arable cultivation. The establishment of permanent grassland will cause the organic matter levels to increase over time, especially where the land is grazed. The soil analysis results for 2017 showed that the levels in the early reversions had generally gone up to around 5-9%. The increase in soil organic matter goes hand in hand with bacterial and fungal diversity and with the locking up of carbon, making semi-natural grasslands like chalk grasslands in our landscapes a natural way of helping to tackle climate change.

Achievements for fauna

We saw an amazing transformation from cultivated land to herb-rich sward by year three, and even by the second summer after sowing there was visibly and audibly more insect life in the new grasslands. The most obvious insects are of course the butterflies, and from the second year we saw meadow brown, common blue, small blue, dark green fritillary , marbled white, ringlet and small skipper.

Other insects, such as moths, beetles, bees and flies had also colonised the grasslands, although no formal assessment was made in the early years to compare with the baseline survey taken at the start of the reversion process. However, in an invertebrate survey undertaken in 2016, one new BAP Priority species (the bumblebee Bombus ruderatus) and eight new Nationally Scarce species were recorded, including the six-belted clearwing moth and the picture-winged fly Merzomyia westermanni.

When farmland is taken out of cultivation there is a risk that some bird species associated with arable cropping might decline, so it was important to ensure that the key requirements of these species were maintained. To help ensure seed food availability for farmland birds on the farm, some strips of wild bird seed mixes were sown alongside natural features such as hedges. Farmland birds are regularly seen in the floriferous arable margins and the bird seed plots, and whilst the figures from the Common Bird Census recording took a little while to show real signs of benefit, the ongoing provision of suitable habitat has reaped rewards. Local populations of farmland birds such as skylark, yellowhammer, linnet, lapwing and corn bunting, all of which are currently species on the Red List of Conservation Concern, have either increased or been maintained, as the chart below shows.

Lessons learnt

We have learnt a couple of important technical lessons regarding nutrient levels and seed sowing as a result of our reversion projects.

  1. Where we started the reversion process with a phosphate index of around 2, it sometimes produced a thick grass-dominated sward very quickly, crowding out some of the sown wildflowers and emphasising the need for a lower initial phosphate index. Although haymaking can be used as a way of reducing nutrient levels in the soil once the wildflower seed mix has been sown, we have found that growing barley for a couple of years without a compound fertiliser prior to starting the reversion is a more cost-effective way of reducing the levels of key nutrients, especially available phosphorous. These crops are best grown with the application of ammonium nitrate fertiliser; this helps the barley pull up the phosphates from the soil without contributing to the nutrient load, as nitrates will leach readily from chalk soils.

 

  1. We did not mix the seed with any other agent at first and found that the seed clumped together in the machinery (termed ‘bridging’). Mixing the seed with the kiln-dried sand improved the flow, but we have found in other reversion projects that it is even better to use a fertiliser spinner, which broadcasts the seed through a wider aperture.

 

All photos supplied by Patrick Cashman, site manager RSPB Winterbourne Downs

For more information, contact: patrick.cashman@rspb.org.uk

 

 

Case Study: Managing hedges on an extended rotation – Using an excavator mounted finger bar and tree shear

Author: Fraser Hugill: Throstle Nest Farm, Sproxton, North Yorkshire

The Management Challenge

In recent years I have taken over the management of the family farm. The farm business consists of 350 acres, split over two different holdings, both with fantastic hedgerow networks that support lots of wildlife but with very different management needs. I wanted to find a way to manage the hedges myself that would be cost-effective and benefit wildlife.

The solution came in the form of digger-mounted finger bar cutter and tree shear. The results have been really good for hedges, wildlife and soil – and have given me the perfect excuse to keep the farm’s best big boy’s toy - the digger.

The two holdings that make up my farm business are Throstle Nest, on the southern edge of the North York Moors, and White House, on the northern edge of the moors. The farm is roughly 50% arable (Winter Wheat, Winter Barley, Spring Beans, Oats) and the remainder a mix of permanent pasture and grass/herbal leys supporting a herd of 50 pedigree Beef Shorthorn suckler cows.

Throstle Nest has a really intact hedgerow network, very similar to 1840s maps, with species-diverse hedges. Prior to our arrival these appeared to have been trimmed annually and were grazed by sheep, but were generally in a good condition. Throstle Nest also has heavy clay soils which are waterlogged throughout winter. This means that using a conventional tractor-mounted flail cutter was only viable in the Autumn as the wheels cause too much damage to the ground in spring.

White House has had very little hedgerow management - Dad pretty much ignored them, which created a good habitat, but hedges were starting to grow out and lacked structural diversity. Although Dad’s management had benefits for wildlife, this management could not go on indefinitely!

Both farms are in Countryside Stewardship with both agreements up for renewal. The current agreements include hedgerow revenue and capital options to gap up and coppice hedges, and these options will be included in the new agreements.

Managing Hedges with Excavator Mounted Equipment

Moving to Throstle Nest in 2012 involved a lot of infrastructure work so we purchased a 5-tonne excavator. The plan was originally to sell it once work was complete, however this prospect was akin to taking away a children’s favourite toy!  So, somehow this had to be justified. But how? By buying more toys to attach to it of course!

The first piece of kit was a Slanetrac 1.8 metre finger bar hedge trimmer which runs off the excavator’s third service. It works as a combine cutter bar using the same blades as our combine. Unlike a tractor-mounted flail, cutting is done in one single pass, so no going backwards and forwards which risks increased damage to the ground.

Cutting involves staying in one position to cut 4-5 metres off the hedge side and then from the top. Then moving another 4-5 metres forward to the next section. This gives excellent control, particularly when cutting larger sections of hedge.

 

Bar hedge trimmer cuts through 3 - 4 yr old hedge wood
Bar hedge trimmer cuts through 3 - 4 yr old hedge wood
Cutting several feet of mature hedge growth in one cut
Cutting several feet of mature hedge growth in one cut
Hedges.IMG_0856

One of the key advantages over a flail is the very pleasing clean neat cut, which is particularly important when managing hedges on an extended rotation.

So often I hear that if you don’t cut your hedges every year you get a “right mess” but the photos below help illustrate how clean the cut can be, and how strong regrowth is behind the cut.

Cost also comes into play, with the finger bar costing £2400 it was, in my view, not overly expensive, albeit our finger bar cutter is a little on the light side for our management objectives, the key is not to be in a rush and to learn the machine’s limitations.

Hedges..IMG_0876
Hedges...IMG_0878

The brash left behind has both advantages and disadvantages, depending on your personal viewpoint. I try to make a single cut so each piece of brash is as large as possible, making it easier to then bulldoze cut material together with the excavator blade and/or the front toothed bucket.

If the ground is very wet, this is often done at a later date, being mindful of breeding birds.  I have been pleasantly surprised how effective this actually is as the material acts as a rake. Note we have no roadside hedges. Touch wood, we have had no issue with thorns, either with cows or tyres as we use the tracked digger to clean up.

An advantage of the long sections of brash is you can actually clean up, compared to a flail which sends material everywhere. We don’t have sheep, but if we did, thorns might be a concern due to sheep’s ability to find danger!

Hedges cut on a 3-4 year rotation generate a lot of material, as the photos illustrate. The tidiest approach is to burn it, however that would be too conventional! As a result, where there are gaps in the hedge, the brash is used to fill them to discourage livestock and people with dogs (picture, left below) or to make habitat piles (picture, right below).

Where ditches are fenced off (our ditches are small and seasonally dry) I tend to leave the brash in situ to provide some dead wood but to also potentially slow flow and to help intercept sediment. Using the material from the hedges adds to the sustainability of our approach.

If I was a workshop tinkerer I would be making a Bailer to somehow get the material into our log biomass boiler!

Hedges.......IMG_3699
Hedges....IMG_3257

The second attachment for the excavator is a TMK tree shear, which again is operated via the third service. This machine basically grabs hold of a tree, branch or shrub pulling it across a cutting blade. The cut off material can then be placed in a pile or wherever the operator wants.  As with the finger bar I try to fill gaps with the material, and section out any timber for logs, but ultimately some of the brash is burnt. This machine has really helped with managing some of the bigger grown-out hedges.

The speed and ease of coppicing it provides is amazing and clearing up the material is so easy as you have hold of it in the comfort of a cab.  A key lesson is to take a long-term approach and not to blitz all the hedges at once just because you have a tree shear and have to get all CS capital works done in 2 years - owning a tree shear should perhaps come with a licence! Manage hedges over your lifetime not on an annual basis.

It should be noted that with larger material the tree shear/ cut is not especially "clean", however this is where compromise sometimes come in. With full coppice we tend to finish off stumps with the chainsaw to limit the ripping effect of the shear (picture below).

I am also playing with part managing grown out hedges through part-coppicing, digger-laying and generally mixing up diversity of management.

Tree shear on Alder

The ultimate sign of success, however, is the species using the hedges. We are perhaps culpable of not doing enough survey work, however the thing we have really noticed is the increase in yellowhammers.

This will not be solely down to hedges as we have winter bird food and supplementary feeding - however the hedges are a key component in the ecological jigsaw.

Yellowhammer Emberiza citrinella, adult male feeding on grain at Hope Farm,  April 2002

Why we take this approach to hedgerow management

Our approach comes down to circumstance and objectives and will not be for everyone.  Our aim is to:

  1. Maximise the ecological value of hedges by allowing flowering for pollinators and fruiting for birds and small mammals by pushing back cutting dates to as late in Feb as possible and extending the cutting cycle to have 75% of hedges in berry and flower production each year.
  2. Have control over hedgerow management, allowing flexible and responsive approach to management based on ground conditions and most importantly what I see while cutting the hedge. This is particularly relevant to hedgerow trees and allows me to first spot them and then not cut them.
  3. Have a diverse range of hedges at different stages of succession from regenerated through planting and coppicing to mature with future hedgerow trees establishing.
  4. Incrementally cut the hedges so they are not cut to the same point, so they expand overtime ultimately leading to being coppiced and the process starting again.
  5. Have hedges that provide shelter, function as a livestock barrier and contribute to the agricultural success of the farm.
  6. Minimise ground disturbance/compaction

The key thing however is mind-set, an uncut hedge to me no longer looks messy, whereas a bonsai flailed hedge looks like a massive missed opportunity. As farmers we tend to hate bare fallow and that’s how I feel about an annually flailed hedge when it is not getting the chance to produce a crop of flowers and/or berries

Hedge to right coming into third year after cutting has comparable flowering with unmanaged hedge to left
Hedge to right coming into third year after cutting has comparable flowering with unmanaged hedge to left
Same hedge close up - note, honeysuckle
Same hedge close up - note, honeysuckle

Sources of further information/ advice

Delivering Championing the Farmed Environment (CFE) events, in my role as Northern Co-ordinator has really helped develop my understanding of hedges over the years.

Events with Steven Falk, an excellent entomologist, have really highlighted the value of hedges and particularly the flowering cycle of hedgerows for pollinators early in the season, before habitats like nectar mixes and meadows come into play.

Hedgelink also produce excellent information about hedgerow management which we have used in events.

Encouragement received from Chris Tomson, who was our local RSPB adviser has also fostered a greater interest and understanding.

Case Study: Carabid beetles for natural-enemy pest control

Author: Kelly Jowett:

If there was an agent acting within your crops that could reduce eggs and first instar larvae of the cabbage root fly by up to 90%; reduce emerging wheat blossom midge by 81%; and reduce seed stock of crop weeds in the range of 65-90%, then I’m sure you’d want to keep it in there. Well, with a little effort you can have this voracious destroyer of pests working across your farm. Carabid beetles, sometimes known as ground beetles, eat ALL major crop pests, and weed seeds too, and are present in all farm habitats across the UK. This makes them ideal agents of natural enemy pest control.

Natural enemy pest control is a bit of a mouthful but is just what it describes: the eating of crop pests by the predators that would control them in a natural system. The problem for natural enemy pest control is that we are not dealing with a fully natural system. Since the post-war agricultural revolution, farmland has been subject to tremendous change. Over time this has caused substantial decline in the populations of carabid beetles and other natural enemies. Unfortunately, pest species are adapted to bounce back quicker - especially since large crop areas are ideally suited to support population booms. Whilst pesticide sprays are necessary in this system, they compound the problem - hitting the predators as well as the pests, added to associated resistance building.

The importance of biodiversity

Carabid beetles are incredibly variable. Of the 350 species in the UK, 30 of these are common in farmland. They range in size from 2mm to 3cm in length; some can fly long distances, some run up to 16cm per second; some breed in the autumn, and some breed in the spring. Each has their own habitat preferences, meaning that they are active at different times, tolerate different weather and farm management practices, and are better at eating different crop pests. Therefore, having a diverse range of carabid species will mean that you have the best chance of effective pest predation.

So what can we do to help boost carabid numbers and diversity?

Luckily carabid beetles are well studied and we already know a lot about what they need to thrive. We can break this down into areas to feed, areas to breed, and areas to shelter.

Areas to Feed

Of course we want them to feed in the crop or pasture area when pests are there- but pests are not there all the time (luckily for us!) to support the carabid beetles needs. So semi natural areas are essential to provide the invertebrate and plant resources for all year round food. Conservation headlands, grass/ flower margins, beetle banks and taking field corners out of management, can all provide these close to productive areas, so carabids can move quickly into the crop to eat the pests they prefer, when they appear.

Areas to Breed

Carabids lay their eggs in the soil, hatching into larvae- which take around 6 months to grow, before they pupate and emerge into adult beetles. The larvae are actually predatory on crop pests too, and eat more than adults as they need a lot of protein to grow. Some larvae also eat weed seeds, which is particularly useful as they live in the top soil levels in the crop area. To help larvae grow undisturbed in crop areas, minimum tillage systems may be useful.

Areas to Shelter

Carabids have two main periods when they need shelter: hibernation, and aestivation, which is a summer rest period when conditions are too hot and arid. At these times, the beetles take advantage of permanent habit with structure that creates a protective microclimate- such as hedges, ditches, banks, and at a small scale the tussocks created by some grasses.

Another important aspect is the shelter from machinery and chemical applications. These can cause direct mortality, or affect the carabids ability to feed and breed, so safe areas near to crops allow some beetles to thrive and repopulate when such management is necessary.

Linking up farm habitats

To preserve or enhance the diversity of carabids on your farm it is important to have a range of habitats, but also for them to be linked up. Firstly populations need those seasonal and foraging movements, but as conditions change, different species can immigrate into your farm from surrounding areas to boost your assemblage of species. Carabids move in the landscape in a variety of ways, flying species will use habitats as stepping stones, whilst running species may need ‘corridors’ of hedges and margins to encourage them to move around the farm.

Farm habitats for beetles. a) grass and flower margins, along with hedges provide food resources year round, and connect other habitats;
 b) beetle banks create stable resources in the centre of fields, to encourage beetle presence in crop areas;  (c) Peter Thompson
c) taking corners out of management encourages scrub and tussocky grasses- ideal for sheltering carabids.

Farm habitats for beetles: a) grass and flower margins, along with hedges provide food resources year round, and connect other habitats;  b) beetle banks create stable resources in the centre of fields, to encourage beetle presence in crop areas;  c) taking corners out of management encourages scrub and tussocky grasses- ideal for sheltering carabids.

But there is still work to be done

Although scientists have done a lot of research on carabids, there is still a lot we don’t know. My recent work has shown that different species are associated with different landscape features such as field boundary habitats, crops, soils, and management such as tillage regimes. If we can better understand which habitats are most beneficial for different beetles, it will become possible to tailor your farm habitats to get a good selection of predatory species that suit a farms particular pests.

Pitfall trapping to monitor farm habitats

Pitfall trapping is a quick and easy way to see what carabids you have on your farm, and if you do pitfall trapping periodically, you can track how the populations vary over time relative to your farm management interventions. For details see my factsheet:

 How to pitfall trap on your farm: Factsheet

Feed-back to scientists, especially me!

The main knowledge gap is how these habitats work in practice, over time. This is where we need to work with farmers closely, monitoring farm habitats, seeing what works, where, and why. But also, crucially, we need to know which interventions fit well into your farm business. Even if something works for beetles, if it’s going to be difficult for farmers to apply, it will not be widely applied!

Which leads me on to my plea: I need farmers to take my survey!

Watch my animation: Here.

Take a short introduction to ID quiz: Link to ID Quiz

Then take my beneficial beetles survey to tell me your opinions on carabids, management that may be useful for them, and monitoring. Link to survey

If you are motivated after reading this article to carry out pitfall trapping or set up monitoring on your farm, I would be happy to help with advice, and support with verification of carabid identification.

Email : Kelly.jowett@rothamsted.ac.uk or contact me on twitter: @kelly_jowett

Case study: Insecticide-free arable farming

Author: Martin Lines
Farm: Papley Grove Farm, Cambridgeshire: 160 ha farmed in-house plus 360 ha contract farmed

(c) Martin Lines

Aims:

In 2013, my agronomist recommended that I spray for black bean aphid, but conditions were too wet and windy for a period of ten days, after which aphid numbers had dropped and ladybirds were eating them, so I decided not to spray and saw no detrimental impact on my gross margin. This got me thinking about the pros and cons of insecticide use, as insecticides were becoming less beneficial due to resistance and were taking out the beneficials that were doing the natural pest control. Prior to this, I had already stopped using Dursban to control Orange Wheat Blossom Midge (OWBM) about 15 years ago because of the damage I could see this did to the insect life as a whole in the field. Also, my experience of contract farming an area of organic farmland for ten years led me to realise that insecticides were not necessary for yields in this system: the reduced yield of the organic land seemed to be more down to crop nutrition and weed pressure than pests or diseases. So I took the decision to do everything I could to control pests without insecticides and monitor the impacts on my yields and profit margins.

I took advice from my Frontier agronomist, who is very understanding of where I am coming from and where I want to get to. I also get ideas from events and social media.

Management:

Prior to 2013, insecticide spray decisions were based on a combination of thresholds and convenience. As the products cost £1.60 / ha and the operation cost £5 or £6 / ha, I would occasionally add an insecticide to a fungicide or herbicide application if its use was likely to be necessary, to save the money of running two operations. After 2013, the convenience use of insecticides stopped and I monitored against thresholds for the first few years and did not find a single justifiable case to spray. There were anxious moments in the early years when I would see signs of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV) on small areas, but in experience this did not result in a net economic loss. Pest numbers seem to have been suppressed from exceeding thresholds from year one. Subsequently, I keep an eye out on forecasts and look for visible signs of an issue but am more relaxed that I have built up the resilience of my soil, crops and beneficials to have confidence that I may never need an insecticide again. I am not saying that I will never use them, but as yet, I have not had a need to. I occasionally see OWBM, but timing of control for these is so critical, and the use of a summer insecticide is so damaging that I have resisted the urge I would have previously had to resort to the can. Cabbage Stem Flea Beetle (CSFB) problems seem to occur whether I use insecticides or not and the way I look at it now is that the more you use the chemical, the greater the risk of resistance build up.

I have broadened the range of crops I grow. Previously, I stuck to a rigid two wheats, oilseed rape, one or two wheats, beans, all winter-sown, and the ratio of crops in the ground would be roughly 70% wheat, 20% oilseed rape, 10% beans. Now I have added winter and spring barley and have no fixed rotation, tailoring the cropping in each field to weed pressure and soil health. So, for example, if I have a black-grass problem then I will not go with a 2nd wheat, even though this gives a better return than a break crop. In general, I grow less wheat, more barley, less oilseed rape and more beans than previously. I now average about 40% wheat, 30% barley, 20% beans and 10% oilseed rape. The reduction in area of oilseed rape is more due to the challenges of dry August / September than issues with CSFB. On paper this would seem like a less profitable rotation, but in reality, I have slashed my cost of production, which has more than made up for loss of yields and crop values and my net profits have increased. Books also say that incorporation of spring crops to reduce black-grass levels results in a net loss in profits, but in reality, incorporation of the full range of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques more than makes up for this through reducing costs of production.

Ladybird on winter beans (c) Martin Lines

I use pest resistant varieties where possible, but take decisions based on the best contracts that I can get, so this is not a major consideration. I have moved back towards traditional recommended cropping intervals, but this is a balance to have full IPM and maintaining a balanced rotation, so unlike virtually all farmers, I am moving back towards five to six years between oilseed rape crops.

I drill cereals after mid-October if weather allows, rather than September to reduce black-grass and autumn aphid pressure. I avoid over-feeding crops with nitrogen fertiliser in one application to prevent rapid growth, making the crop more prone to pest and disease pressure.

Making the habitats to enable the beneficial insects and spiders to thrive is key to the success of this system. I started off with flower-rich margins around the outside of the fields, and now have been adding flower-rich strips every 4th tramline (120m) to improve natural pest control and insect pollination. I am forever increasing my habitat areas voluntarily until my agri-environment agreements expire and allow me to top up the payments based on the areas I am taking out of production. I see the benefits of the in-field strips on the yield maps of my oilseed rape and beans, with yields being 5-20% greater next to the strip and tailing off further into the field: this also reflects my observation of the number of bumblebees I see across the fields. The yield response is probably a combination of the effects of increased insect pollination and increased natural pest control. I have not looked at whether the enhanced pest control next to the flower strips shows any benefits in my cereals yields yet.

Field margin in flower at Papley Grove Farm (c) Martin Lines

What area/% of cropped land is now out of production for AES / voluntary habitats compared with pre-2013?

I have around 9% on rented land and 12% at home. I also see increasing soil organic matter and, where soil structure allows, direct drilling of crops as measures that benefit the natural pest predators in providing a more functional soil ecosystem within which they can thrive. Many of the measures I have adopted in the transition to regenerative agriculture have multiple benefits, and it is difficult to tease out individual cause and effect impacts.

As well as stopping the use of insecticides, I have also cut down on the use of herbicides, fungicides and molluscicides. I put this down to improved soil health, crop health and better rotations – a consequence of the holistic regenerative agricultural system. I am conscious that pesticides as a whole do damage to the functional ecosystem that boost my yields, and I am looking to reduce use across the board. I monitor slug levels, but if I see lots of beetles in the field, I see if they can do the job first and only treat areas that seem to be struggling. I am not looking to eliminate slugs from the field, but keep them at manageable levels, whilst maintaining a thriving food chain for the beneficials.

This year, I have tried a few new ideas to further benefit from the IPM approach. I have sown a mix of wheat varieties in my wheat field to avoid the pest and disease risks that can arise from a single variety monoculture. I have also undersown my beans with clovers and tried intercropping my oilseed rape with phacelia and clovers to see if these measures will disguise the crop from pests and boost beneficial numbers further.

Achievements:

Overall, crop yields are a little lower, but I think this is more because of the switch to direct drilling than the loss of insecticides. The yield losses are more than made up for by the reduction in costs of production and the net margins are up, despite reducing the areas of wheat, our most profitable crop. Last year, cost of production of my wheat was c.£72 per tonne, about half of the average across my peers. Prior to 2013, profit margins had stagnated, but the trend is now definitely upwards. The total farm profit is so variable from year to year, it is not possible to put an average percentage figure on it yet. I do feel my business is more resilient to the market and weather pressures.

(c) Abi Bunker, RSPB

There are visibly more beneficial insects and spiders. I don’t know what they are, but the ground is alive with them. There is noticeably more wildlife overall, especially the birds. The incidence of pest levels exceeding economic thresholds has declined to zero. This was apparent from year one, but probably accrued over the first few years. Prior to 2013, I might spray a cereal crop with insecticides in the autumn against BYDV, at ear emergence and potentially again for OWBM. In oilseed rape, I would spray between two and four times in the autumn for CSFB.

I also believe there are benefits in this approach to my personal health, with fewer potentially harmful chemicals to deal with.

There is no blueprint to IPM and I feel it has to be a whole farm and landscape approach as it is not as easy as conventional farming with pesticides. Farmers need support through Knowledge Transfer platforms to help them to reduce pesticide use – this is not readily available beyond organic farming.

Case Study: Pasture for Pollinators

Authors: Owain Rowlands ( Menter a Busnes ) & Anna Hobbs ( Bumblebee Conservation Trust )

 

Welsh dairy farmers and bumblebees don’t normally crop up in the same context but a group of organic dairy farmers in Wales, who market their products under the Calon Wen brand, are hoping to change things.

Six of the Calon Wen farmers have been growing multi-species Herbal leys, which include flowering herbs, legumes and grasses, for a three-year European Innovation Partnership (EIP) Wales project.

The project is aiming to show that some simple changes to grassland management can go hand in hand with boosting pollen and nectar resources for bumblebees and other pollinators.

Herbal ley plants in flower. © Anna Hobbs

In 2018, each of the farmers sowed a Herbal ley from Cotswold Seeds which includes bird’s-foot trefoil, clovers (red, white, sweet and alsike), sainfoin, and other species which can help to enhance pollinator populations.

During the silage season, the farmers have been leaving a 100m by 4m uncut (or ungrazed) strip along a field margin.  During first or second silage cuts, they are leaving one headland uncut; then at the next silage cut the previously uncut area is mowed and a different area of headland is left uncut. Late grazing of permanent grassland has also been explored by some of the farmers.

These grass management techniques aim to help provide bees and other pollinators with the continuous supply of flowers they require to forage on. By alternating headlands, they can also keep the whole field in good agricultural condition.

Uncut margin in herbal ley silage field © Anna Hobbs

Monitoring by Bumblebee Conservation Trust staff in 2018 and 2019 has shown higher numbers of bumblebees and other pollinators, and also greater numbers of pollinator species, in the uncut/ ungrazed margins compared to cut/ grazed field margins.

With one year of monitoring to go, the results indicate that this is a practical management technique for livestock farmers to help support bumblebee and other pollinator populations, especially in terms of ‘bridging gaps’ in nectar and pollen forage resources throughout the season.

In one survey in 2019 at Cop House Farm, Chester where David Edge milks 300 proCROSS cows producing an average of 7500 litres per cow, pollinator numbers rose from 12 in the cut part of the field to 189 in the uncut margin.

Common carder bee on clover. © Anna Hobbs

Anna Hobbs, the Bumblebee Conservation Trust Officer responsible for surveying the farms remarked “the results that we have collected so far are really encouraging.”

David Edge, Calon Wen farmers says “We’ve run this project as farmers which I hope will show others how bumblebee conservation can be practical and beneficial to the farm. I believe that more often than not, wildlife conservation can go hand in hand with productive farming.”

Pollination is one of the most critical services that nature provides, underpinning food production and biodiversity. Around a third of the global food crop and three-quarters of British wild plants are dependent on pollination. Compared to horticultural and arable systems, much less attention has been given to how grass-based livestock farming, such as dairying, can benefit pollinator populations.

Watch the Video. for a visual summary of the project.

Case Study: Providing food and shelter for invertebrates in Autumn

Author: Catherine Jones, Buglife

As the days continue to shorten, temperatures drop and the morning frosts start to appear, the value of autumnal vegetation for wildlife should not be underestimated.

In addition to creating the striking frost-bitten scenery in autumn and winter, allowing tussocky grass and wildflower seed heads to remain uncut through winter, in field margins, along tracks and roadside verges, and in gardens, will provide food and shelter for invertebrates and other wildlife.

© Gethin Davies

The remaining seed heads of the summer flushes of wildflowers such as willow herbs, thistles and even dandelions supply food for goldfinches, linnets and other seed eating birds and shelter for invertebrates. Ladybirds and earwigs may shelter in large wildflowers seed heads.

© Guy Sharrock

© Jodie Randall

Tall tussocky grass provides shelter for many overwintering invertebrates, and spiders construct their webs between long fronds that collect water droplets in the early morning mists. Grass tussocks may also hide ‘runs’ where mice and voles move from place to place protected by the dense vegetation above. Carder bee queens, emerging from hibernation, will search for nesting sites at the base of grass tussocks in spring.

Autumn is a great time to cut areas of long grass, including wildflowers meadows, and to remove the cuttings to help wildflowers to thrive the following year which in turn produce nectar and pollen to feed our valuable pollinators. But leaving leaving some patches of long tussocky grass and tall wildflower seed heads back then has now provided food and shelter in hardest months and nesting opportunities next spring.

© Gethin Davies

Additional information on managing farmland for pollinators is available from:

Bug Life: Helping Pollinators at Farm Scale

Bug Life: Helping Pollinators at Field Scale