Adding Value to Chalk Grasslands: Creating Chalk Banks to benefit butterflies and other insects.

Author: Lynne Roberts . Farm: The RSPB’s Manor Farm, Newton Tony, Wiltshire

Aims and setting:

Manor Farm is a 296 ha working farm strategically placed between two of the largest tracts of semi-natural chalk grassland in the British Isles – Salisbury Plain and Porton Down. The RSPB purchased Manor farm in 2006 and have been reverting former arable land back to species-rich chalk grassland to create a landscape-scale stepping stone between these two areas.

Whilst this reversion has been very successful in establishing flower-rich grassland, even after several years the ex-arable fields still have unsuitable soil conditions for the plant species typical of very thin, nutrient-poor chalky soils. The fields are also rather flat as a result of historical cultivation, lacking the humps and hollows of natural grassland which help to create a variety of microclimates for a wider range of plants and insects.

For these reasons, in 2013 it was decided to create two large mostly south-facing banks to support viable populations of species characteristic of thin, chalky soils. Butterfly banks and scrapes can provide ideal conditions for butterflies, with sheltered sunny spots and bare ground for basking, alongside a mosaic of nectar-rich flowers for foraging adults and specific foodplants for growing caterpillars.

Funding for the creation of the banks was provided by the SITA Trust (now SUEZ) “Conservation of the small blue butterfly at RSPB Winterbourne Downs” project, and the Biffa Award “Saving a special place for Wiltshire’s endangered butterflies” project. Appropriate permissions for the work were also obtained.

Construction:

The site for the butterfly banks was flat terrain with a 20cm layer of flinty loam over chalk. Two large banks measuring 150m x 12m and 180m x 12m were constructed in two different fields. The loam topsoil was bulldozed into an S-shaped mound, oriented so that most of its length faced south. The mound was then covered with the chalk from the beneath the soil, leaving a wide 'scrape' area of bare chalk alongside.

The S-shape ensures that there are sides facing all possible directions, creating a variation in topography and diverse range of micro-climates. The idea is that this helps to increase the resilience of both plants and insects to the more extreme conditions predicted as a result of climate change. In the mornings, butterflies, bees and other warmth-loving insects can warm up on the east-facing side of the banks, which catches the early morning sun. During the main part of the day, they can use the warm, sunny, south-facing side. If it gets too hot on the south side, the insects can retreat to the north-facing side. As expected, during the middle part of the hottest July day on record in England in 2015, all the bee activity was on the banks’ north-facing slopes.

Construction begins

The first bank was initially seeded with a generic chalk grassland and wildflower mix as well as kidney vetch and horseshoe vetch, which are vital food plants for small blue, chalkhill blue and Adonis blue butterflies. On the second bank, only the kidney vetch and horseshoe vetch were introduced. The banks could have been left to regenerate naturally, but the butterfly foodplants were not growing in the vicinity and therefore seeding with specific species was preferred to ensure that the right plants established.

Development over time and ongoing management

The vetches were the first plants to establish and were flowering in the first summer after autumn sowing. Over the following two years other species, such as small scabious, ribwort plantain, harebell and quaking grass appeared, the coverage developing into a patchwork of abundant flowering species interspersed with bare areas - the ideal structure for butterfly habitat.

Vetches establish quickly on the bare chalk

The vegetation on the banks has become denser over time but has required little ongoing management as the tough conditions prevent many unwanted species from colonising. Sheep are our management tools, grazing from August onwards, when most flowering is over. This helps us to keep on top of any scrub encroachment and keeps the sward open, with some disturbance of the ground surface to create germination opportunities. Cattle would probably cause damage to the banks, so are avoided.

Where necessary, brush cutting is carried out in the summer and the arisings removed and taken to other areas of the farm which are species-poor and could benefit from wildflower sowing.

Brush cutting the coarser vegetation

Achievements:

Colonisation of the banks by breeding small blue butterflies was impressively quick - within the first three years, as the kidney vetch established readily. The abundance of suitable foodplants is particularly important for sustaining viable populations of butterflies, so the fact that small blues were seen on the banks in August, probably a second brood from eggs laid in June, was a good indication that suitable habitat for breeding had been achieved.

Small blue on its larval foodplant, kidney vetch

Other chalk grassland butterflies have also been recorded on the banks in the last few years: common blue, brown argus, marbled white, dark green fritillary and, excitingly, the marsh fritillary, a species in severe decline which has been attracted to Manor Farm by the abundance of scabious plants in the grassland. Good numbers of these species are now being seen on the farm as they are moving in from the neighbouring strongholds on Salisbury Plain and Porton Down. We have yet to record chalkhill blue, but the Adonis blue was a new record in 2018, so hopefully it will just be a matter of time before the chalkhills arrive.

The diversity of flora species continues to develop, with some of the less common chalk specialists such as devil’s-bit scabious, starting to appear on the banks.

In addition, we have shown that the fields containing the banks can still be used as grazing land, albeit in a carefully managed way.

Our experience and lessons learned:

Five years on we found that some plants had been harder to establish on the banks than others. The pioneer species kidney vetch and horseshoe vetch, two of our key butterfly food plants, established readily from seed and plug plants were not required. However, we didn’t have the same success with common rock rose, the food plant of the brown argus and cistus forester moth. This was easier to establish from plugs, although the sown seed may germinate eventually when conditions are favourable and the seed coat has weathered a little. Plugs are more expensive, so a pragmatic approach may be to try sowing seed first and then supplementing with a few plugs after a couple of years if the seed has not germinated. Germination rates of common rock rose can be improved by scratching the seed surface (scarifying) prior to sowing.

Where we sowed the generic mix, some of the taller plants have become dominant, greater knapweed particularly, shading out some of the foodplants, such as horseshoe vetch. We have therefore had to manage some of the less desirable species in order to help the key plants thrive.  This was not such issue on the second bank, where we had just sown the foodplants, with just the odd thistle to deal with.

We suspect that by creating the base of the banks from the flinty loam topsoil, the longer rooted chalk grassland species may be accessing nutrients from this base and gaining an advantage. Ideally, the bank would be created from pure chalk and the removed soil utilised elsewhere. A chalk-only bank would create the harsher alkaline conditions which favour the more extreme chalk specialists, including the kidney vetch and horseshoe vetch, and would slow the rate of encroachment by scrub species.

Although our butterfly banks are very large it is important to note that banks of any size can make a big difference to the survival of butterfly populations - even just moving soil around to create variation in the topography of reverted arable fields or pasture can help. Butterflies exist in small populations which are linked to create larger ‘metapopulations’, so even quite small areas of suitable habitat could provide a vital link in the chain.

All photos supplied by Patrick Cashman.   
For more information, contact: patrick.cashman@rspb.org.uk

Further examples of butterfly banks

Organisations such as Butterfly Conservation and Buglife have been constructing butterfly banks on several sites, both rural and urban, as a way of creating breeding habitat suitable for a number of different butterfly species. For further information see the following links:

https://butterfly-conservation.org/our-work/reports-and-factsheets/habitat-creation

https://farmwildlife.info/2017/12/15/bare-ground-butterflies-moths/

British dung beetles – here to help

Author: Ceri Watkins, Co-Founder of Dung beetle UK Mapping Project

Species: Dung beetles

Why is farmland important for these species?

There are approximately 60 species of dung beetle in the UK. They are not the ‘ball rollers’ seen in warmer countries and on TV, instead they live inside the dung pile (dwellers) or in the soil beneath it (tunnellers). Livestock grazing provides much of the dung required for the survival of these beetles, although other animals such deer and badgers also contribute. Some species are rather specialised and require exacting conditions. For example, Volinus sticticus prefers horse or sheep dung in the shade and Onthophagus joannae is a sun loving beetle that favours sheep dung on light soils. Others are less fussy and have few specific requirements.

It is possible to find dung beetles at work all year round. Several species are winter active, although the vast majority are found in the spring, summer and autumn. Given the right conditions, dung beetles can decimate a pile of horse poo or a cow pat in just a couple of days.

Volinus sticticus (c) Katherine Child  

Onthophagus joannae (c) Katherine Child

How do dung beetles benefit farms?

Dung beetles provide a wide range of ecosystem services that help to maintain healthy pastures and soils. These include the most obvious, the consumption of dung thereby removing it from the fields thus reducing pasture fouling, but also some that you may not have considered. As the beetles tunnel down through the soil, burying the dung for breeding purposes, essential nutrients are recycled within the soil profile. This improves grass growth and provides a direct benefit to grazing animals. The larger species such as the Minotaur beetle (Typhaeus typhoeus) can tunnel a metre or more, this action breaks up the ground and improves drainage, especially useful on clay soils.

In addition, dung beetles also reduce nuisance fly populations by transporting phoretic mites that eat fly eggs and help control intestinal parasites by reducing dung suitability for worm larvae. The beetles are also an important food source for many other farmland favourites such as bats and birds.

 

Onthophagus similis with phoretic mites (c) Ceri Watkins

Habitat management

Continuity of the dung supply and diversity of habitat are key factors in supporting a diverse range of dung beetle species on the farm. If possible, maintain some outdoor grazing year-round, even if only a few animals. Planting a group of trees and grazing within them will provide variety of forage and shelter for livestock and support the shade loving dung beetles too.

Broad spectrum livestock wormers such as avermectin are detrimental to beneficial dung invertebrates. These chemicals are excreted in the dung for many weeks after treatment and a range of lethal and sub-lethal effects occur depending on the concentration. Such effects include slowing beetle larvae development, reducing the size attained at adulthood and reduced breeding capacity.

Dung beetle larvae (dwellers) (c) Darren Mann

Cutting down the use of chemicals on the farm with a sustainable worm control policy that includes monitoring with faecal egg counts will help. Treating animals only when necessary will save money and also slow the rate of anthelmintic resistance. As a natural alternative in a rotational system, consider using herbal leys. Sainfoin, birdsfoot trefoil and chicory all have anthelmintic properties. The latter has been shown to reduce worm burden in sheep by as much as 40%. In permanent grasslands, mixing up cattle and sheep grazing works by reducing the stocking density of the parasite host – cattle and sheep worms are different species.

Benefits

Supporting dung beetles on your farm not only helps keep pasture and livestock healthy, it also represents good economic sense. It has been estimated that dung beetles save the UK cattle industry £367 million per annum through the provision of ecosystem services (Beynon et al., 2015). So, it really does pay to look after these useful little creatures.

For further information and dung beetle identification resources, please visit the Dung beetle UK Mapping Project website or get in touch via email or twitter.

Using hay strewing as a technique to create species-rich grassland

Author: Jennifer Palmer

Farm: High Burnham Farm, Epworth

Aims

High Burnham is a large (+300ha) arable farm.  As part of the RSPB’s Axholme and Idle Farmland Bird Initiative¹ (Lincolnshire), an opportunity was identified to revert an arable field corner to a species-rich meadow.  The 1.7ha field corner sits within the base of a large L-shaped arable field.  Because of the clay-based soil type, the field corner lay wet so was deemed unsuitable for arable cropping hence it was left out of production for four years.

The low-lying field corner lends itself to a pastoral management and is less than 200m from Rush Furlong Meadow SSSI.

This will be the only parcel on the holding managed as grassland.  It is anticipated that hay will be cut by a local contractor used by the Lincs Wildlife Trust and aftermath grazing will be carried out by a local grazier.

Management

Verbal advice and a written proposal were provided to the landowners on species-rich grassland establishment and management.  The RSPB’s Hay Meadow and Arable Reversion topic sheets were used to supplement this verbal and written advice.  The landowners understood the principles of grassland management through knowledge of a local grassland SSSI.

Hay strewing is a tried-and-tested method for enhancing the botanical diversity of species-poor grassland² and can also be used to create diverse grasslands on arable land³.  It entails taking freshly cut ‘green hay’ from a local donor site and, on the same day, strewing (spreading) it onto a suitable receptor site.  It is a cost-effective method and ensures that the received seeds are of local provenance.

Two donor sites were identified and Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust kindly donated and cut the hay from Sedge Hole Close, a damp meadow (MG4 National Vegetation Community) containing cowslip, great burnet, lesser knapweed, oxeye daisy and cuckooflower.  Natural England consent would have been required for using SSSI hay.

Loading a trailer with green hay at East Lound with Matt Cox Lincs Wildlife Trust

Technical advice was followed to ensure the receptor site’s soil was suitable, through testing phosphorus (P) levels.  The soil sample results showed a P Index of 1 (low) so was deemed acceptable.  The farmer prepared the site by spraying off weeds using herbicide and creating a create a fine, firm and level seedbed, avoiding looseness at depth.

The site has no historical significance.

Because the donor site is an NVC MG4 vegetation community, containing abundant great burnet, we followed advice from a floodplain grazing meadow conference (attended by Helen Norford of Yorkshire Wildlife Trust) to spread the hay at reasonable depth (up to 10cm).

Once strewn, in the first year the vegetation growth should be cut up to 4 times and then the grassland should be treated as a traditional hay meadow thereafter.

Because the donor site was smaller than the receptor site (0.9 and 1.7ha respectively) we found that we had a deficit of green hay for the receptor field and a ratio of 1:1 (as recommended by Dr Duncan Westbury) would have worked better.  Partners therefore plan to revisit, survey and repeat if necessary next year.

Black grass growth will also be re-sprayed off this year.

The cost of the green hay was free as it was donated by Lincolnshire Wildlife Trust.

There was a minimal fuel and labour cost incurred by the farmer transporting the two loads of green hay from the donor site to the receptor site.

Achievements

Breeding skylarks have been recorded in adjacent fields during RSPB bird surveys and breeding skylarks are also recorded at Rush Furlong SSSI so the parcels should attract skylarks.  The parcel also offers potential lapwing nesting habitat, providing the additional scrape excavation works are undertaken. There are records of yellowhammers in the hedges and reed buntings nesting in the adjacent OSR crop.

Sitting within the Humberhead Levels NCA, the project meets multiple NCA priorities – the creation of lowland meadow (biodiversity priority) and permanent grassland (landscape priority).

Advice for other farmers

Don’t be tempted to miss out the soil testing step! If phosphorous index is anything above low, species-rich grassland creation may not be viable for your site at this moment in time.

Ground preparation is really important and if strewing onto established grassland, really open up the sward so that lots of bare ground is showing.

Orchids may take several years before they appear so don’t be disheartened if nothing happens for the first few years.

Expect to have to consider repeating the method to ensure a diverse sward.

Additional information

¹ The Axholme and Idle Farmland Bird Initiative covered the river catchment area in the Idle Valley and Isle of Axholme, an area of Lincolnshire, South Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire recognised as being nationally important for its farmland bird assemblage.  The project area was one of the RSPB’s Farm Advice Focus Areas and ran from 2012 to 2018 combining farmland bird monitoring and farm conservation advice.
² Natural England Technical Information Note TIN063, Sward enhancement: diversifying grassland by spreading species-rich green hay.  Also through own experience on land owned by the Malvern Hills Trust, following advice from Dr Duncan Westbury of Worcester University.
³ Visit to arable reversion hay strewing site led by Professor Ian Trueman, 15-18 June 2012, FSC Shropshire Wildflower Weekend.
⁴ Natural England Technical Information Notes: TIN035, Soil sampling for habitat recreation and restoration and TIN036, Soil and agri-environment schemes: interpretation of soil analysis.

Helping hedgehogs on farmland

Author: Nida Al-Fulaij, Grants Manager, People’s Trust for Endangered Species

Species: Hedgehog

Why is farmland important for this species?

Hedgehogs are found throughout the UK in all habitats. They have historically been associated with farmland for centuries. Hedgehogs are insectivores, foraging in fields and on grassland for worms, and along field margins and at the base of hedgerows for beetles, snails and other invertebrates. They are considered a generalist species, inhabiting most areas of our countryside, our villages and many areas of our towns too. However, as the dominant habitat in the UK, farmland is particularly important for hedgehogs.

Hedgehog (c) Stephen Oliver

Hedgehogs, like all animals, need to feed, hide from predators and find mates. A variety of habitats that provide foraging areas and secure nesting sites is ideal. Both arable and pasture land can support healthy hedgehog populations. Wide, species-rich hedgerows with buffers of grassy margins on either side provide safe ‘highways’ for hedgehogs to move around the landscape. Hedgerows with wide bases that are managed on rotation should have healthy invertebrate populations for hedgehogs to feed on. Old hedges with dense root systems and lots of deciduous leaves are ideal for them to use as nesting sites, both during the summer and in winter as hibernation spots.

The denser the network of hedges, the more securely hedgehogs can move around, and the higher the availability of prey species for them to feed on.

Recently ploughed fields can provide a bounty of earthworms and other prey; hedgehogs can be found in-field taking the opportunity to feed on invertebrates once crops have been harvested.

Recent studies show hedgehogs are found nearer to farm buildings. These areas could be providing safety from predators on farmland with less robust and fewer hedgerows, and larger fields.

Habitat management

Hedgerows:

Increasing hedgerow availability provides more nesting and foraging areas for hedgehogs. Ensure that hedgerows are species-rich, contain native trees and are as wide, high and dense as possible. Maintaining hedge bases at least 2m wide with minimal or no gaps provides secure safe nesting sites. Managing hedgerows on a 3 year rotation ensures that hedges remain diverse and robust.

Field margins:

Field margins provide buffer zones to protect hedgerow bases. 2m margins in arable fields and 3-6m margins in pasture ensures the hedges are protected from trampling and grazing, whilst the grassland provides extra invertebrate prey. Beetle banks also provide buffer zones and extra foraging areas.

Fields:

Smaller field sizes with a mixed crop provides greater variety, and therefore greater food security, for hedgehogs and other wildlife. Increasing hedges and field margins on farms with fewer, larger fields, provides habitat for hedgehogs. Reducing tillage or moving to no-till or conservation agriculture reduces soil compaction, increases soil invertebrates and improves and increases the depth and quality of the soil organic layer.

Pesticide & herbicide use:

Reducing pesticide and herbicide use means that more invertebrate prey, in particular earthworms, will be available on farmland for hedgehogs to feed on.

The above management measures recommended to provide a healthy landscape for hedgehogs are typically those associated with traditional farming practices. There should be no problems, though many of the measures may be more time-consuming than those associated with farming on a larger scale.

Hedgerow with grassy margin (c) Gethin Davies

Peoples Trust for Endangered Species (PTES) and British Hedgehog Preservation Society (BHPS) have created an advice note detailing management and stewardship options that will benefit not only hedgehogs but other wildlife too (see link below).

Benefits and costs

Creating and managing hedgerows sensitively has financial costs but there are stewardship options available; individual ones for the management regimes listed above are detailed in the attached advice note.

Hedgehog (c) Ben Andrew (rspb-images.com)

Managing a farm for a species such as a hedgehog involves looking at the farm as a whole. Unlike species that fly, such as butterflies, hedgehogs needs the entire landscape to be suitable in order to thrive. Consequently, many of the management techniques recommended to improve habitats for hedgehogs will also provide a healthier landscape. A denser proportion of hedges and associated smaller field sizes both help to reduce soil erosion. Reducing tillage improves soil organic matter and reduces soil compaction.

PTES and BHPS guide – How to help rural hedgehogs

Case study: Herb-rich leys

Author: Ian Boyd
Farm: Whittington Lodge Farm, Gloucestershire

Aims:

Whittington Lodge Farm has predominately thin Cotswold Brash soils on 280ha, mostly over 800 feet in altitude. The cultivated half of the farm was in a continuous arable system, but average yields meant it was only marginally viable and blackgrass was creeping in.

In 2015, it was decided to undergo organic conversion on all the arable area to combine with the fully organic grassland. Herb-rich leys were introduced into the rotation to build fertility for the organic cereals. They are grazed by an existing and expanded suckler herd of native Hereford cows and calves.

Cattle grazing a herb-rich ley at Whittington Lodge Farm. Image credit: Ian Boyd

Management:

The herb-rich leys contain at least 5 species of grass, 5 legumes and 5 herbs which all add to the biodiversity with varying rooting depth in the shallow soils. They are established by under-sowing in spring barley crops, broadcast with an Opico seeder/harrow once the barley plants have reached the 3 leaf stage. This way the undersown plants are still small enough not to interfere with the barley combining. Grazing can begin in the autumn.

The herb-rich ley can last for 4 years and can be grazed or conserved as hay or silage. It can fit in well with other grasslands like permanent pasture with the management of grazing livestock.

Mob grazing can help achieve the best from the leys. The cattle are moved frequently, usually daily, onto fresh grazing and a back fence stops them eating any re-growth after about 3 days. The adage is that you should not see the cattle’s knees when they go in and you should not see their ankles when they come out. Some of the herbage is eaten, some trampled and some left so that the root structure underneath the plants is maintained and re-growth is rapid.

Then, most importantly, the ley is rested for a couple of months to allow plants to flower and set seed before the next grazing. This will provide habitat for invertebrates, including crop pollinators, and improve soil structure and water infiltration.

Moving the electric fence is a daily commitment but it makes it easier to check and count the stock as they run past.

The cost of seed is significant but no nitrogen is required, and it is possible to incorporate this option into a Countryside Stewardship scheme and claim payments for it.

As the soil organic matter level is improved, more grass will be grown and stocking rates will be able to be increased. This system suits both cattle and sheep on organic and non-organic farms.

Achievements:

There are multiple benefits to herb-rich leys. When terminated, they provide an ideal entry to cereal crops for several years, organic or not. The arable weed spectrum is dramatically reduced, especially blackgrass.
Soil health and organic matters levels will have been increased with large amounts of carbon sequestered into the soil, far more than the effects of methane produced by the cattle.

The nutrient density of the beef will be greater when multiple species and biodiversity are eaten with knock-on health benefits for the cattle and consumer.

The farmland wildlife is a big winner here, with many different plants flowering producing nectar for pollinating insects and producing seed (and insects) for many bird species to eat. Skylarks nest everywhere, hares and roe deer love to graze it. Kestrels and barn owls hunt for short-tailed field voles living in the long grass and snipe are increasingly being seen looking for worms in the winter time.

It really helps to be organised and to have planned the rotational grazing before the start of the season. Access to water, ease of moving electric fences and having the cattle in the right place at the right date all have to be factored in.

This system really suits British native breeds of cattle, which can readily be managed to Pasture-for-Life standards (essentially no grain fed). Pasture-for-Life beef allows the opportunity to brand and market it yourself with a great story for a higher price than the beef commodity market can pay.

www.cotswoldbeef.com

Case Study: Managing for breeding waders on Shetland

Author: Sue White
Farm: Uradale Farm, Shetland

Aims:

Breeding waders are very much iconic species in Shetland. This particular feature forms an integral part of a holistic plan and along with mown grassland for wildlife management benefits breeding waders.

Uradale Farm covers 750ha of mostly heather moorland. On the lower ground there are about 200ha of semi-improved and improved grazing and a few hectares suitable for growing crops. The whole unit is organic, and now carries a flock of 600 Shetland ewes and a breeding herd of 30 Shetland cows. Lambs and beef are sold to Lidgates Butcher in London during September to November each year and the wholefood shop in Lerwick, Scoop, sells lamb in season and mutton and beef all year.

Management:

The organic status of the farm and the environment are important for marketing the meat, wool and a holiday cottage. So maximising benefits to biodiversity are important but this has had to be balanced against the sustainability of the unit and the ability to finish native stock on as much home grown feeding as possible. Grazing animals are either removed for 6 weeks or at a reduced stocking level for 3 months during the wader breeding season.

Stocking levels have to be kept low in order to make the organic system work on this unit so wet grassland for wader management fits in with the farming system fairly well.

Greylag geese numbers have increased and have a detrimental impact on adjacent silage fields.

Achievements:

This is an option that works well from an agricultural point of view on a unit where stocking densities are lower than average. Topping of rushes is needed in some areas and this is fitted in after the birds have finished breeding but before the ground gets too soft. The influx of greylag geese is a disadvantage that farmers will want to consider.

Uradale Farm is also a High Nature Value (HNV) farm, and farmer Ronnie Eunson has signed up to the HNV Manifesto – calling on governments, HNV farmers and crofters, farming groups, environmental organisations and citizens to work collectively to ensure the very best support for nature in HNV areas across the UK. Find out more about HNV farming and listen to farmer Ronnie Eunson talk about his farm here.

http://www.aalmerk.com

Case Study: A farmland bird package on limestone soils

Author: Jeff Platts
Farm: Hazelmere Farm, Creswell, Derbyshire

Aims:

To provide summer insect food and seed food over winter for seed-eating birds, particularly targeting grey partridges and tree sparrows, and to provide suitable nesting habitat for lapwings on the arable land.

Management:

Hazelmere farm (270 acres) has been in the family for over 75 years, and is leased from Chatsworth Estates. I took the decision to leave dairying five years ago, and now the business concentrates on arable, with a livery and rural skills school on site.

Wild bird seed mix plots

To provide winter food for the seed eating birds on his land, I have included several plots of wild bird seed mix which have done very well on the free-draining, limestone based soil. The mix includes phacelia, kale, quinoa, millet and triticale with a handful of sunflowers also thrown in. The wild bird seed mix is re-established every other year and the land is prepared and drilled as if it is a normal crop. I occasionally get an infestation of flea beetle on the kale so a pesticide is used. A small amount of fertiliser is added to maintain nitrogen levels. The plots where the wild bird seed mix have been established were chosen to complement the adjacent land use such as hedges and margins with recognised bird populations.

The wild bird seed mixes have worked so well, I’m looking at re-sowing only one of them this year with the possibility of adding perhaps an additional row of quinoa or millet alongside another of the plots. The kale is showing through in this second year along with a reasonable amount of fat-hen which will also provide a good seed source.

Fallow plots

I have also included rotational fallow plots - it has proved very successful in encouraging lapwings to breed on the farm and I estimate there are slightly more than 20 breeding pairs. I’ve also seen flocks of up to 80 lapwings using the plots in the late summer.

Across the farm there are 51ha left as over-wintered stubbles after a spring cereal and, on average, 10ha are then sprayed off at the end of March and left as fallow after running over them with a light disc to break up the surface.

In the autumn, as long as there is no major weed cover showing, a single run with the cultivator or a light set of discs creates a suitable till and the cereal is then drilled.

There have been some issues with sterile brome on the fallow plot. After discussion with Natural England, the plot was left fallow all year including over winter and then cleaned up with a stale seed bed with a supplementary treatment with Roundup before being sown with another spring cereal this year.

Flower-rich margins

I’m currently looking at adding some additional floristically enhanced margins for grey partridge around some fields to increase foraging and breeding habitat. This will also benefit a wide range of insects, and other birds on the farm which feed their chicks on insects.

Achievements

Collectively, the wild bird seed mixtures, floristically-enhanced margins and fallow plots will provide an ideal package for farmland birds, giving the key requirements of winter seed food, summer insect food and in-field nesting habitat for ground-nesting birds, respectively.

The birds on the farm were surveyed in 2009 as part of the RSPB’s Volunteer & Farmer Alliance scheme. The survey picked up nine red list species of high conservation concern, including grey partridges and lapwings, and thirteen bird species of medium conservation concern, including bullfinches and reed buntings.

Of these, the density of lapwings recorded on the farm during the summer and autumn are testament to the benefits of fallow plots to this species with the number of lapwings breeding on the farm having increased since the adoption of this measure. It also provides a winter food source for those lapwings which over-winter in the area.

A large flock of around thirty tree sparrows were seen feeding on one block of wild bird seed mix and two of the blocks were sheltering coveys of grey partridge last autumn.

The wild bird seed mix plots are also magnets for hundreds of invertebrates including bees and butterflies.

The floristically enhanced margins will plug the final gap in farmland bird requirements by ensuring that there are insect-rich foraging areas.

Case Study: Skylark Plots

Author: Ian Dillon
Farm: Grange Farm, Cambridgeshire

Aims:

We include two skylark plots per hectare in all winter cereal fields on the farm as an easy means of supporting skylark numbers on the farm.

Management:

In 2009, we trialled spraying out the plots, and found that they worked successfully for skylarks provided that they were sprayed before the end of December. From 2013 this will be the preferred way of creating them, as our contractor has changed to an 18m drill and is less able to create plots when drilling. It also means that the plots are exactly 4m x 4m and so we are taking less land out of production. The plots are sprayed out using a 36m boom sprayer which is pre-programmed to spray out the plots at specified locations within the fields.

Achievements:

The plots work extremely well for us, increasing skylark territories from 10 in 2000 to 43 in 2012. We have good crop yields (9 t/ha for winter wheat and 3.2/ha for oilseed rape), having been doing skylark plots for 12 years now.

Skylark numbers have increased by over 400% on the farm in the last 13 years, against a backdrop of continued decline in the East of England as a whole. Monitoring nesting success in the first three years of using skylark plots showed that the number of nesting pairs in fields with plots increased and the number of chicks that each pair rears also increased.

Image: Andy Hay (rspb-images.com)