Helping hedgehogs on farmland

Author: Nida Al-Fulaij, Grants Manager, People’s Trust for Endangered Species

Species: Hedgehog

Why is farmland important for this species?

Hedgehogs are found throughout the UK in all habitats. They have historically been associated with farmland for centuries. Hedgehogs are insectivores, foraging in fields and on grassland for worms, and along field margins and at the base of hedgerows for beetles, snails and other invertebrates. They are considered a generalist species, inhabiting most areas of our countryside, our villages and many areas of our towns too. However, as the dominant habitat in the UK, farmland is particularly important for hedgehogs.

Hedgehog (c) Stephen Oliver

Hedgehogs, like all animals, need to feed, hide from predators and find mates. A variety of habitats that provide foraging areas and secure nesting sites is ideal. Both arable and pasture land can support healthy hedgehog populations. Wide, species-rich hedgerows with buffers of grassy margins on either side provide safe ‘highways’ for hedgehogs to move around the landscape. Hedgerows with wide bases that are managed on rotation should have healthy invertebrate populations for hedgehogs to feed on. Old hedges with dense root systems and lots of deciduous leaves are ideal for them to use as nesting sites, both during the summer and in winter as hibernation spots.

The denser the network of hedges, the more securely hedgehogs can move around, and the higher the availability of prey species for them to feed on.

Recently ploughed fields can provide a bounty of earthworms and other prey; hedgehogs can be found in-field taking the opportunity to feed on invertebrates once crops have been harvested.

Recent studies show hedgehogs are found nearer to farm buildings. These areas could be providing safety from predators on farmland with less robust and fewer hedgerows, and larger fields.

Habitat management

Hedgerows:

Increasing hedgerow availability provides more nesting and foraging areas for hedgehogs. Ensure that hedgerows are species-rich, contain native trees and are as wide, high and dense as possible. Maintaining hedge bases at least 2m wide with minimal or no gaps provides secure safe nesting sites. Managing hedgerows on a 3 year rotation ensures that hedges remain diverse and robust.

Field margins:

Field margins provide buffer zones to protect hedgerow bases. 2m margins in arable fields and 3-6m margins in pasture ensures the hedges are protected from trampling and grazing, whilst the grassland provides extra invertebrate prey. Beetle banks also provide buffer zones and extra foraging areas.

Fields:

Smaller field sizes with a mixed crop provides greater variety, and therefore greater food security, for hedgehogs and other wildlife. Increasing hedges and field margins on farms with fewer, larger fields, provides habitat for hedgehogs. Reducing tillage or moving to no-till or conservation agriculture reduces soil compaction, increases soil invertebrates and improves and increases the depth and quality of the soil organic layer.

Pesticide & herbicide use:

Reducing pesticide and herbicide use means that more invertebrate prey, in particular earthworms, will be available on farmland for hedgehogs to feed on.

The above management measures recommended to provide a healthy landscape for hedgehogs are typically those associated with traditional farming practices. There should be no problems, though many of the measures may be more time-consuming than those associated with farming on a larger scale.

Hedgerow with grassy margin (c) Gethin Davies

Peoples Trust for Endangered Species (PTES) and British Hedgehog Preservation Society (BHPS) have created an advice note detailing management and stewardship options that will benefit not only hedgehogs but other wildlife too (see link below).

Benefits and costs

Creating and managing hedgerows sensitively has financial costs but there are stewardship options available; individual ones for the management regimes listed above are detailed in the attached advice note.

Hedgehog (c) Ben Andrew (rspb-images.com)

Managing a farm for a species such as a hedgehog involves looking at the farm as a whole. Unlike species that fly, such as butterflies, hedgehogs needs the entire landscape to be suitable in order to thrive. Consequently, many of the management techniques recommended to improve habitats for hedgehogs will also provide a healthier landscape. A denser proportion of hedges and associated smaller field sizes both help to reduce soil erosion. Reducing tillage improves soil organic matter and reduces soil compaction.

PTES and BHPS guide – How to help rural hedgehogs

Bare ground for butterflies and moths

Author: Tim Pryor-Lettley
Farm: Matterley Estate, Hampshire

Matterley is a 2400 acre mixed farm with 200 dairy cattle and 1100 acres of arable including wheat, barley and oilseed rape. The estate ownership and farm management has been in the Bruce family for three generations. Peveril Bruce is a member of the Winchester Downs Farm Cluster group. The farm business is diverse and the estate supports a large music festival each year, motorcross, tank driving, cross country runs, cycling events and a large game shoot.  The farm has been in Higher Level Stewardship since 2014.

Aims:

As part of the Section 106 agreement for continuing to run the Boomtown music festival at the site, a decision was made to create a butterfly scrape to establish a breeding area for native Lepidoptera such as the small blue butterfly and the striped lychnis moth. This opportunity arose from a longstanding relationship with Jayne Chapman at Butterfly Conservation. The way in which the work was delivered in partnership with Jayne demonstrates the importance of good relationships and local conservation officers.

Creating the butterfly scrape. Image (c) Jayne Champan, Butterfly Conservation

Management:

The location and size of the butterfly scrape was determined by the local authority. Although when we undertook a site visit with Jayne, she suggested an alternative and more suitable location. We also agreed to make the scrape significantly bigger than the specification. The field earmarked for the scrape is north facing. The optimum location for a butterfly scrape is a warm south-facing slope. To remedy the aspect of the field we scraped the topsoil down to the bare chalk and banked up the soil on the bottom to create a level or near south-facing part to the bank. The work was undertaken in October 2017 and will be seeded by South Downs National Park Authority with a mix of kidney vetch, rock rose, dark mullein, knapweed, scabious and bird’s-foot trefoil with local provenance seed.

In terms of effort, the 20m x 5m scrape took about half a day to create and the ongoing management will be about an hour a year. This work will involve ensuring that grasses and weeds don’t encroach or dominate the scrape. This will be controlled using a herbicide around the edge and spot treatment where necessary.

Small blue butterfly. Image (c) Andrew Cooper, Butterfly Conservation

Achievements:

It’s too soon to say whether or not the bank has worked as it is yet to be seeded. We hope that it becomes home to breeding populations of the target species. However the continued benefits from having a great working relationship with the Butterfly Conservation officer are tangible. Jayne has helped steer us to think differently about lots of activities on the estate. These include teaching us how useful even a small amount of bare chalk is for creating habitat and that the areas around the farm where we expose the chalk do not need to be ‘tidied up.’ We now understand that disturbance (even just a very small amount) is a key part of sustaining biodiversity. We now look at our activities quite differently.

Working with Butterfly Conservation has also led us to thinking about different activities in a more pro-biodiversity way. An example is the creation of a new drinking water reservoir that will be landscaped to help encourage a variety of species. Jayne has given us such friendly, positive and practical advice and has provided leaflets to educate us about the importance of different species.

Creating the butterfly scrape. Image (c) Jayne Chapman, Butterfly Conservation

Advice for other farmers:

It’s really easy to do something very small that results in big, positive impacts. Building a relationship with a local conservation officer can help with many areas of the farm management. They aren’t scary and they do understand the needs of the business whilst offering practical ideas on how to tweak things so that more benefits for farm wildlife can be created.

For more information on the striped lychnis moth and the small blue butterfly use these Butterfly Conservation species factsheets.

Header image: Striped lychnis larva (c) Andy Foster

Case Study: Restoration of rank wetland habitats to benefit waders

Author: Dan Brown, Dr Duncan Allison & Sarah Bird
Farm: Anston Farm, Dunsyre, South Lanarkshire

Aims:

Anston is a 651 ha mixed upland livestock farm in South Lanarkshire. A variety of habitats can be found across the farm. The hill ground includes dry heath and acid grassland, whilst the upper in-bye fields contain a mixture of permanent pasture and grass/clover leys. The in-bye on the lower ground runs down to the South Medwin river and it is here, on the river floodplains, that marshy grassland dominates, with scattered remnants of lowland raised bog nearby.

Over numerous years the field had become wetter, as drains stopped being maintained. This, in combination with reduced grazing levels and no cutting, resulted in the dominance of marshy grassland vegetation (primarily soft rush) and grasses (e.g. tufted hair-grass). The vegetation had become too tall and dense to be used by waders, as confirmed by a 2013 RSPB breeding wader survey which surveyed the entire valley within which Anston sits. No waders were breeding on the wetland, but curlews, lapwings, redshanks, snipe and oystercatchers were all recorded on adjacent fields. The decision was made to try and improve the habitat, knowing that birds were nearby to take advantage of improvements.

Management:

The RSPB provided advice, including the importance of cutting and grazing in order to keep wetland vegetation sufficiently low in height, in order to attract breeding and feeding waders.

In September 2014, AMW Arboreal were contracted to carry out one day’s work with a Softrak, a low ground-pressure vehicle equipped with a forage harvester, chipper, reed cutting head and heather cutter. This allows management of rank rush, reed, heather and scrub whilst protecting wetland surfaces. It has an average speed of 1-2 mph and can cut between one-third and half a hectare per day.

Around 0.5 ha of dense rush pasture was cut and removed, with cuttings piled together to compost over the following year (a composting licence may be required for larger jobs). This work was undertaken as part of a management agreement between Dr Allison and the RSPB.

The following summer (2015), Dr Allison used a tractor-mounted flail mower to cut re-growth and access other uncut areas, using the open areas and ‘rides’ that had been cut into the dense rush by the Softrak. As a result of the benefits from this initial work, the decision was made to scale up the management for the remainder of the wetland, and a further 6 days of rush cutting with the Softrak were carried out in March 2016. This time, cuttings were left on site to mulch down, as Dr Allison felt there would be benefits for soil fertility (see below).

Dr Allison used a Kverneland FXJ flail topper, which was found to have benefits over the more conventional whale tail (hammer) head flail, or long swinging blade vertical axis type pasture topper. The FXJ is fitted with pairs of swinging "J" shaped flail blades with intermediate fan lifter fingers. The blades cut and shred the dense rush more efficiently than other machines, with near double the forward travel speed being achieved. The shredding action pulps the fibrous vegetation which was blown from the rear of the machine and left on the surface. The deposited shredded material composted down far quicker than when cut by the farms other topping machines, and quantity and variation of flora and fauna species regrowth was noticeably improved. Additionally, shredding and allowing the rush vegetation to compost on the surface returns potash to the soil, a distinct advantage over removing the cut vegetation. Carting away the vegetation ultimately reduces the fertility of what is already poor land.

Wetlands are problematic and in certain situations can potentially be dangerous. Dense cover can prevent ground visibility, and many farmers are concerned about getting equipment stuck as a result. Similarly, livestock safety becomes an issue where there are unknown or obscured ditches which may prevent grazing.

By removing the dense rush with the Softrak, Dr Allison had a much better understanding of ground conditions i.e. the location of ditches and waterlogged areas. This enabled him to access the site with the quad during drier weather, and gave him the confidence to put sheep out in greater numbers.

The wetland has been brought back into a condition that will allow further follow-up management during dry periods in the future.

Benefits and costs

One of the benefits to arise is increased grazing. During drier periods, sheep are now put out onto the site, allowing grazing of grasses and herbs previously hidden by the rush pasture. There is more grass than was expected; it has taken the removal of rushes to ‘open up’ the sward and make apparent.

A second benefit is access. The micro-topography of the site is now clear to see; standard machinery (quads, tractors) can now enter the site. Previously, the site was a no-go zone due to fear of getting stuck.

Continued rush management and grazing will also benefit the farm business in the longer-term; it will improve habitats for target species within agri-environment schemes, and demonstrates a willingness on part of Dr Allison to maximise his management for wildlife. In time, this should enhance his chances of entering future agri-environment schemes. Removing tall dense rush will increase evapotranspiration, allowing the wetland to dry out more quickly during the summer, in turn making site management requirements easier to undertake (i.e. machinery and livestock access).

In terms of costs, the Softrak work was funded by a local RSPB budget for conservation work in South Lanarkshire. This funding stream was earmarked for trialling novel management techniques that couldn’t be funded through existing agri-environment options. The contractors used cost £360 per day (plus haulage).

In addition, fluke is present in the area and it is acknowledged that grazing these areas may increase the chances of infection.

Tips for other farmers

Due to the high costs involved, a Softrak is likely to only be appropriate in certain circumstances. At Anston, the farm lies within a valley that supports important populations of lapwings, curlews, snipe, redshanks and oystercatchers. It would make sense that the two following criteria are met if considering using a Softrak elsewhere:

a) priority species are adjacent to the site so there is a high chance of utilising the improved habitat

b) it should only be used on farms that possess suitable equipment for follow-up management (topping, grazing) as well as a clear understanding and commitment on the part of the farmer or land manager to undertake the follow-up management.

Case Study: A technique for rush control creates habitats for wading birds and black grouse in the North Pennines

Author: Janet Fairclough
Farm: Farms in Baldersdale and Lunedale, North Pennines, Durham

The North Pennines is a special place, providing excellent habitats for a wide range of important wildlife. The landscape has the highest density of breeding waders in mainland UK and more than 80% of England’s black grouse. As a result, the area has huge potential to help boost populations of nationally declining upland birds including lapwings, curlews and black grouse.

In the North Pennine Dales, the RSPB are working with farmers and land managers to enhance farm wildlife, concentrating on five dales; the Allen Valleys, Baldersdale, Lunedale and Upper Teesdale.

Aims:

Funds from a Teesdale man’s legacy are being used to create habitats for breeding waders and black grouse, by controlling areas of dense soft rush and creating scrapes for breeding waders, and planting small areas with trees for black grouse.

Thomas Raine originally came from Teesdale and always regarded the area as “God’s own country”. He very generously left some money in his will to the Campaign for the Protection of Rural England (CPRE) to help protect the area he loved. The Durham Branch of CPRE decided that it would be appropriate to spend some of the legacy by helping the RSPB to increase the amount of wildlife-rich habitat on farmland in the area.

As a result, the RSPB have been working with three farms in Baldersdale and Lunedale. On these farms, we have funded the cost of hiring a local contractor to control dense soft rush in fields that will be suitable for breeding waders once the rush cover has been significantly reduced.

Management:

Soft rush (Juncus effusus) is an important aspect of the upland landscape. It provides shelter for stock, particularly young lambs, and is an important habitat for various birds, invertebrates and insects.

Traditionally, soft rush stems were soaked in fat and used in household lamps as wicks, as it was a cheaper alternative to candlelight. This practice was revived during the Second World War in some rural areas.

Unfortunately, soft rush can also be invasive and troublesome. It spreads by rhizomes (underground plant stems capable of producing the shoot and root systems of a new plant) and each seed head can produce more than 8,000 seeds every year, which can remain dormant within the soil for at least 20 years until the conditions are right for them to germinate.

It can spread rapidly to form extensive, dense stands, and is tough and waxy so most livestock will avoid eating it. Once a soft rush infestation covers more than a third of a field, the value of that field is significantly reduced for both breeding waders and grazing livestock.

There are several methods for controlling soft rush, the main ones being cutting, herbicides, grazing and re-seeding. Sometimes a combination of several techniques is utilised. The choice will be influenced by a range of factors such as the topography, botanical diversity, ground conditions, cost and proposed management after control.

In the lowlands, rush is often managed using a combination of cutting in late summer, followed by weed wiping with herbicide 4-6 weeks afterwards. In the uplands however, plants grow much slower and we do not get enough rush re-growth following cutting to be able to follow up with weed wiping before the end of the growing season.

Up here in the hills, we therefore weed wipe without cutting the rush first. This method is proving to be successful in the North Pennines. The weed wiper is towed behind a quad bike, and has a rotating brush which is set to such a height that it applies the herbicide directly to the rush stem. This enables us to control the rush without damaging the grass or any botanical diversity in the field. Just four weeks after weed wiping, the soft rush has started to die off.

We have funded weed wiping on about 32ha of soft rush across the three farms this autumn and are planning to monitor the success of this work by carrying out breeding waders surveys next spring.

Now that the 2014 rush control work has been completed, we are talking to farmers in the area about using the remaining legacy money to fund some more habitat creation. We are currently preparing to plant a small area of scattered trees on a farm in Baldersdale for black grouse this winter, and will be on the look out for a suitable site to create some scrapes next year.

Case Study: Wet grassland for breeding waders in Oxfordshire

Author: James Taylor
Farm: North Aston Farms, Oxfordshire

The family has owned the farm since 1907, and we brought management back ‘in-house’ in the 1960s. We converted to organic status over a ten year period from about 1982 and continued as a mixed farm until 2006, when we decided to become purely a livestock enterprise.

We now farm around 100 South Devon suckler cows and 400 North of England mules. We aim for a simple, extensive meat production system, which suits the natural capacity of the land and its conservation.

Aims:

The farm has a 26ha flood meadow which includes both a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) and a Local Wildlife Site (LWS), as well as some undesignated land. The SSSI was originally designated for a rare water snail but has since been re-designated as being a nationally important site for narrow-leaved water dropwort. The site has also been used for many years by breeding curlew and over wintering snipe.

Although we are obliged to manage the SSSI to benefit the wetland flora, it also fits with the way we want to run the farm.

Management:

We shut the water meadow up for hay over the early summer, which suits the curlew and allows the plants to flower fully. The hay cut provides forage over winter, and the cattle are turned onto the meadow to graze the aftermath.

We created shallow footdrains in the field a couple of years ago to allow us to keep a bit more water on the field over the spring for waders. They’re all long, thin features though, so we can still get round and cut the hay without too much difficulty.

We’ve been able to get support from Natural England when it comes to the SSSI and our agri-environment schemes. The RSPB have been surveying the waders in the area every year and helped plan and create the footdrains with their specialist rotary ditcher. We’ve also used advice from an independent consultant when it came to applying for some of the agri-environment grants, which was really helpful.

When the water meadow was originally designated as a SSSI, it had had a bit of fertiliser and some drainage to improve the grassland for grazing. The change to managing it for hay with no artificial fertilisers has improved its condition for its rare plants, and allowed the water dropwort to flourish.

The meadow is flooded every winter by the River Cherwell that borders it, but it can be hard to get the balance between getting enough wet edge for the waders in spring, and making the sure the soil across the field doesn’t stay waterlogged too long. Having the water features as long, thin footdrains should help with this to some degree. We are starting to get some lesser pond sedge forming a patch in one area, which could be tricky to control if it spreads much further. We have also noticed quite a lot of marsh ragwort starting to appear between the footdrains, which is causing us a little concern.

There have been a couple of very wet summers recently that have meant we haven’t been able to cut the hay at all. In the short term it’s not ideal for either the farm, or for the wildlife, but I think it recovers after a couple of kinder years.

We control the drainage of the foot drains back into the river via a very simple angle-bend. The original structure has been leaking a bit though, so we’re planning on replacing it with a better sluice.

We take at least 150 tonnes of forage from it in a typical year, which protects us a bit from the variability of buying winter feed in. We do have to keep an eye on the quality though; the water dropwort is particularly special to this farm, but we worry how much it affects the health of the cows if they eat too much of it.

Achievements:

The narrow-leaved water dropwort has definitely benefitted from the hay cut and wetter conditions. The meadow puts on an amazing wildflower display in the spring – early on it is a sea of ladies smock, then later a riot of yellow buttercups and pink ragged robin.

I’m so pleased we’ve been able to support the curlew in this part of the river valley. Hearing the first one of the year has always been one of my favourite childhood memories growing up here, and it’s still a bit of a magical moment each February when they return.

Another special bird that has enjoyed the meadow management is the barn owl. Following a reintroduction years ago (when it was still allowed under license), we now have three pairs on the farm. The nest site next to the meadow has been in use for 20 years, and they usually raise a good number of chicks on our local voles.

Advice for other farmers:

My tip would be to enjoy it – if I get a quiet moment, I like sitting out on the hill overlooking the meadow. It’s a great vantage point to take in the view and the sounds of curlew, sedge warblers and reed buntings below. Also, buy some waders!

Case Study: Managing for breeding waders on Shetland

Author: Sue White
Farm: Uradale Farm, Shetland

Aims:

Breeding waders are very much iconic species in Shetland. This particular feature forms an integral part of a holistic plan and along with mown grassland for wildlife management benefits breeding waders.

Uradale Farm covers 750ha of mostly heather moorland. On the lower ground there are about 200ha of semi-improved and improved grazing and a few hectares suitable for growing crops. The whole unit is organic, and now carries a flock of 600 Shetland ewes and a breeding herd of 30 Shetland cows. Lambs and beef are sold to Lidgates Butcher in London during September to November each year and the wholefood shop in Lerwick, Scoop, sells lamb in season and mutton and beef all year.

Management:

The organic status of the farm and the environment are important for marketing the meat, wool and a holiday cottage. So maximising benefits to biodiversity are important but this has had to be balanced against the sustainability of the unit and the ability to finish native stock on as much home grown feeding as possible. Grazing animals are either removed for 6 weeks or at a reduced stocking level for 3 months during the wader breeding season.

Stocking levels have to be kept low in order to make the organic system work on this unit so wet grassland for wader management fits in with the farming system fairly well.

Greylag geese numbers have increased and have a detrimental impact on adjacent silage fields.

Achievements:

This is an option that works well from an agricultural point of view on a unit where stocking densities are lower than average. Topping of rushes is needed in some areas and this is fitted in after the birds have finished breeding but before the ground gets too soft. The influx of greylag geese is a disadvantage that farmers will want to consider.

Uradale Farm is also a High Nature Value (HNV) farm, and farmer Ronnie Eunson has signed up to the HNV Manifesto – calling on governments, HNV farmers and crofters, farming groups, environmental organisations and citizens to work collectively to ensure the very best support for nature in HNV areas across the UK. Find out more about HNV farming and listen to farmer Ronnie Eunson talk about his farm here.

http://www.aalmerk.com

Case Study: Managing for wildlife in Caithness

Author: Katy Malone
Farm: Todholes Farm, Caithness

Todholes Farm is a 170ha lowland livestock farm in Caithness, where Ian Campbell raises prize winning beef cattle and sheep.

Ian Campbell took over the 170ha holding around 1990. Previously his father had managed the farm, having moved to Caithness in 1951. Since then, Ian has built up a herd of prize winning livestock, and won many rosettes for his Beef Shorthorn cattle as well as Lleyn and Texel sheep at a county level and further afield.

Aims:

Caithness holds nationally important populations of breeding waders such as lapwings, curlews, redshanks and snipe as well as twite, which have suffered from long-term declines in their breeding numbers across the UK. It is also a stronghold for the biodiversity action plan (BAP) priority species great yellow bumblebee which was previously widespread in the UK but is now one of our rarest native bumblebees. Populations of all these species have been maintained in Caithness thanks to high nature value farming systems. Todholes Farm is a typical example of these systems, which has been further enhanced through the tailoring of management for the benefit of key species.

The majority of the farm is grazed, with smaller areas of arable for livestock feed: spring barley for cattle feed, fodder rape for fattening lambs, and fodder turnips for wintering sheep.

Much of the farm is directly adjacent to the River Thurso, a Special Area of Conservation for Atlantic Salmon and a Site of Special Scientific Interest for a number of nationally rare or scarce plants.

Management:

Management advice was provided by the RSPB Scotland, specifically in relation to breeding waders and seed eating birds. Scottish Natural Heritage advised on management relating to designated sections of the site, and the Bumblebee Conservation Trust advised on the provision of pollen and nectar sources.

Of the options available for the non-designated parts of the farm, Ian opted for:

– Open Grazed Grassland for Wildlife (29ha)

– Management of Habitat mosaics (16ha)

– Management of Species Rich Grassland (4.5ha)

Open Grazed Grassland for Wildlife

Stock are excluded for six consecutive weeks between 15th March and 15th June, to restrict trampling of nests of waders such as lapwing and curlew. This could have had a high impact on the farm business, particularly in late spring, so the timing of the exclusions are calculated to allow two areas to be shut off while a third is opened up. This works well and has little detrimental impact on the economics of the business.

Management of Habitat Mosaics

This is an area of bog and heath with scattered rush and gorse bushes. Grazing is kept low between May to August to avoid trampling of wader nests and at the same time to avoid the vegetation becoming too rank.

Species Rich Grassland

Three areas of species rich grassland are managed on the farm. Wildflowers were relatively abundant right into early September, providing a much-needed late nectar source to bumblebees. In particular, the nationally rare great yellow bumblebee has been found on Todholes, and lapwings and curlews nest on the other areas of species rich grasslands.

There are some small areas of wetland within the habitat mosaics field, which were of concern to Ian in case they presented a problem with liver fluke. These areas were fenced off to address this. However, to prevent them from becoming rank, the wetlands still need to be grazed and cattle have access to them through the autumn/winter months. The cattle are dosed for fluke three times annually and Ian has not noticed any detrimental effect of fluke on his livestock as a result of grazing in these wetland areas.

Achievements:

It is still early days for the created species rich area and other taller more nutrient-loving species such as thistle currently dominate the field. Species that we hope will flourish here include vetches (e.g. tufted vetch and meadow vetchling), bird’s-foot trefoil and flag iris. Livestock are excluded between April and August but by the time the field is opened up again, the level of grazing is not sufficient to control the ‘weeds’. The grazing plan will be adjusted over time e.g. to increase grazing or allow for cutting so that a greater variety of plants can flourish. Some scarification and reseeding may also take place.

Case Study: Wet grassland and rush management for breeding waders

Author: Gavin Thomas
Farm: Chipping Moss, Leagram Estate, Forest of Bowland, Lancashire

Aims:

The primary aim was to restore upland in-bye wet grassland for breeding lapwings, redshanks, oystercatchers, snipe and curlews. By managing rush cover and water levels it was also hoped that the quality of pasture available to grazing livestock would also be greatly improved.

The site is tenant farmed with a sheep and beef system. Livestock numbers are reduced in spring to reduce disturbance to ground-nesting birds but at other times of the year sheep (mules) and cattle (mainly Herefords) are essential for creating the sward structure required for the birds and keeping soft rush cover in check.

Regular advice and guidance was provided by the RSPB’s Bowland Wader Project. This included help with securing funding and suitable contractors.

Management:

The 44ha of meadows and grazing pasture in particular had been under-grazed in the past, leading to dominance of soft rush. In 2003, a programme of annual topping, weed wiping of the soft rush, and aftermath cattle grazing was introduced. Stocking densities were increased outside the bird breeding season in particular with hardy, native Hereford beef cattle to help with aftermath grazing and control of rush re-growth.

Drainage ditches were formerly steep sided, choked with vegetation and drained much of the site. These were opened up and re-profiled to provide shallow muddy edges for wading birds to feed on. Construction of earth dams and sluices now allow high water levels to be maintained on parts of the site at certain times of the year, providing shallow flood habitat for wading birds and wildfowl. ‘Wader scrapes’ – small, shallow-edged features that gradually dry out towards the summer – were also created to provide invertebrate-rich, muddy feeding areas for wading bird chicks.

Raising the water levels has allowed areas of mown rush to be flooded and killed off. Clearing ditches, re-profiling their edges and maintaining high ditch water levels has reduced the risk of losing sheep in the ditches. The ditches also provide a source of drinking water for livestock. The ditch management was undertaken by a local contractor and also by an RSPB contractor using the ‘spoil spreader’, a machine that is very quick, efficient and cost-effective. It also removes the necessity to deal with large amounts of spoil as this is spread thinly across the site by the machine.

Public access to the site has been improved by banking up parts of the footpath running across the site. Crossing points for farm machinery and stock have been created across the ditches for the tenant farmer to help with livestock management across wet areas. All work has been undertaken by local contractors and farmers and funded by a range of local organisations as well as through the stewardship schemes.

The wet nature of the Lancashire uplands means that ground conditions can be tricky for getting machinery on site, especially to top rushes in early autumn. It can also mean that weed wiping opportunities can be missed due to other farming tasks taking precedence. These problems were solved only by favourable weather!

The grazing and rush cutting/weed wiping regime is working well for livestock and wading birds. Weather and resultant ground conditions are the main obstacles to annual management being completed. Rush management is far easier if it can be mown annually.

Achievements:

In dry summers the rush cuttings (and coarser grasses) have been baled and used as bedding for livestock.

With the new regime, the quality of grazing available to stock is greatly improved. Gathering of sheep is easier with less tall, dense rush on site.

A rapid response to habitat work has seen lapwings, redshanks, oystercatchers, snipe and curlews all increase on the site. From just one pair in 2003, the lapwing population alone has increased to up to 15 pairs annually. Creation of larger areas of seasonal floodwater has also increased the site’s attractiveness to winter waterfowl and passage migrants. In particular the site is now regularly used by large flocks of curlew, with up to 350 present in March 2006, and smaller numbers of whimbrel that pass through this part of Lancashire en route to their Icelandic breeding grounds in spring. The pasture and meadow management also resulted in skylarks returning to breed on the site one year and the grassland management also provides good habitat for brown hares.

‘Opening up’ of the sward has allowed a more diverse range of grasses and some wildflowers to recover as they are no longer shaded out by tall soft rush.

Digging of ponds and scrapes and the ditch restoration work has greatly improved conditions for many species of dragonfly and damselfly and aquatic vegetation communities. This new network of wet features supports a wealth of wildlife including amphibians.

Advice for other farmers

Try not to allow rushes ‘get away’! Annual topping allows the rush cover to be managed more easily. Three or four years of uncut rush takes a lot of management especially when removing cuttings from site.